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Main agricultural products

Various factors affect the socio-economic characteristics of Canadian agriculture. The 2006 agricultural census listed seven: the number and types of farms; biogeography: crops and land use areas; land management practices; number of livestock and poultry; agricultural engineering: agricultural machinery and equipment; farm capital; farm operating expenses and receipts; farms Related injuries.

At the beginning of the 21st century, based on surface area and value, Canadian agronomists realized 48 "main crops of grains, vegetables and fruits". In 2017, the Canadian Agriculture Federation divided Canadian agriculture into five main "production sectors" based on cash income:

1. Cereals and oil seeds: 34%

2. Red meat-livestock: 24%

3. Dairy products: 12%

4. Gardening: 9%

5. Poultry eggs: 8%

Grains and oil seeds

In 1925, Saskatchewan produced more than half of the wheat in the Canadian Autonomous Region and threshed more than 240 million bushels (6.5 million metric tons) of wheat. Rapeseed, alfalfa, barley, canola, flax, rye and oats are other popular cereal crops.

Wheat is Canada's staple food. In order to help farmers get a good harvest in a shortened growing season, wheat varieties were developed in the early twentieth century. The red flute method is the first strain. It is a type of wheat that can be sown in autumn and germinate in early spring. Red Die ripens almost two weeks earlier and is harder than other spring wheats. Dr. C. Saunders further tested Red Fife and developed Marquis Wheat, which is resistant to rust and matures within 100 days. Some of the other wheats grown are durum wheat, spelt wheat and winter wheat. In recent years, Canadian farmers have also begun to grow rice.

The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) was established in 1935 to provide federal financial assistance for the global economic crisis. PFRA provides farmers with land and water resources, such as irrigation, soil erosion protection and water development for small farms. The Farm Credit Program developed the Canadian Farm Loan Act to provide stock bonds and farm improvement loans.


By 1900, 115,000 cattle roamed the southern prairies. Livestock may include raising dairy cows, also commonly referred to as cattle. Recently, the domestication of buffalo and elk has started a new food industry. Sheep feed both wool and meat. The cow barn or pig barn has become part of livestock breeding. Scientists continue to advance in the research of pig raising, thus starting intensive pig raising. The domestication of various farm animals means that the corresponding industries such as fattening farms, animal husbandry and meat processing have also been researched and developed. Two companies (Cargill Foods and Brazil-based multinational JBS) control 80% of beef processing, while four retailers account for 72% of retail sales. From 1921 to 2011, agricultural operations became more intensive and specialized. The total number of animal farms in Canada has increased from 8.1 per 100 inhabitants to 0.6 per 100 inhabitants. During this period, the number of Canadian pigs rose from 3,324,291 to 12,679,104, while the number of pig farms fell from 452,935 to 7,371. In 2011, the pig industry was Canada’s fourth largest industry, second only to rapeseed, dairy products and cattle, cash Revenue was 3.9 billion Canadian dollars. The size of the farms has also greatly increased. In 2011, the national average number of pigs per farm increased to 1,720.

Dairy Farming

Like poultry, dairy farming in Canada is restricted by the supply management system. In 2016, there were approximately 17,840 dairy cows and milk production farm operators in Canada.


With the development of plant resistance zones, horticultural crops including nurseries, flowers and fruits have become easier to grow. Apples, pears, plums and plums, peaches, apricots, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, Loganberries and many orchards, in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Niagara Peninsula And Norfolk County in Ontario and Okanagan City reach the commercial scale of the valley of British Columbia.

Hazelnuts are harvested in Eastern Canada and British Columbia. Maple syrup and maple syrup, maple butter and maple toffee are products along the St. Lawrence River in Quebec. The main market for Canadian maple syrup and sugar is the United States. Potatoes are a bumper harvest in Maritime Provinces. Beet and beetroot sugar are harvested in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba and Alberta.


Viticulture refers to the growth of grapes. Grapes require a mild winter and can be found in some maritime locations, southern British Columbia, Essex, Ontario, and certain places on the Niagara Peninsula.

Poultry and Eggs

Poultry, eggs, chickens, geese, ducks and turkeys are part of the supply management system. Under supply management, production has been restricted, prices have risen, and competition has been severely restricted. By artificially increasing the prices of poultry and eggs paid by consumers, farmers have increased their profits. There are approximately 3,000 poultry farmers and 1,000 egg farmers in Canada.

In 2018, Canadian aquaculture produced 191,259 tons of aquatic organisms. The total value of aquaculture production is US$1.43 billion. Minks and foxes are bred in Canada for fur. The total value of mink produced in 2018 was US$44 million. This value includes furs from dead animals and spring furs. Canadian fur farm from 1981 to 2006.


In recent years, farmers have been producing economically viable alternative crops, including organic crops. Sheep wool is the main area of Canadian fiber production. The average wool production in the 1930s was 16,022,000 pounds (7,267 tons), and in 1949 it was 9,835,000 pounds (4,461 tons). Flaxseed fiber flax has been exported to Britain. Crop growers can supplement their income with beeswax and honey and learn beekeeping. Enterprising landowners have achieved success in packaging and selling sunflower seeds. Crops are not only for human consumption, but also for animal consumption, which opens up new markets such as canary seeds. Animal husbandry is another animal husbandry enterprise. Hemp is an important crop in certain areas, accounting for 5% of British Columbia's GDP. According to BC Business Magazine, the province’s annual crop value is 7.5 billion Canadian dollars and provides 250,000 jobs.

Canadian Department of Agriculture

The Ministry of Agriculture stipulated in the British North America Act (BNA) of 1867 stipulated that each province may have jurisdiction over agricultural affairs, and the dominion government may also formulate laws related to agriculture. Agricultural affairs in Newfoundland are handled by the Department of Agriculture of the Federal Department of Natural Resources. The BNA pointed out that the federal government has sole authority in coastal and inland fisheries matters. The provinces only have rights to non-tide water and fishing activities.

Agricultural Economy

Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce various crops, livestock, food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by systematically growing animals and plants, depending on the geographic location of the province. In 2001, the farm area was only 676,923 acres (2.74 square kilometers), with only 246,923, because the production of food and fiber for human or livestock survival has developed into intensive and industrialized practices. As of 2002, wheat is the largest crop area at 12.6%. In 2001, Canadian farmers received a record 36.3 billion Canadian dollars from livestock, crop sales and planned payments. In 2001, farm operators’ accrued net income from farm production was 1.633 billion Canadian dollars, which accounted for 0.147% of Canada’s GDP (11.082 billion Canadian dollars). Fisheries also play an important role, while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada’s development has given up the means of survival. Now Canada’s mechanical workers account for only 3% of the Canadian population. They have the ability to feed the rest of the country’s 306,690,000 people and can export to foreign markets. (The estimated population of Canada on January 1, 2007 was 32,777,300).

Forms of Commerce

The marketing and economic movement of various agricultural commodities in Canada has always been a challenge. Domestic trade includes the provision of goods between Canadian provinces and between provinces. Warehousing, railways, warehouses, shops, banking institutions and other support institutions and services will affect domestic trade. The Canadian Barley Board monitors the wheat trade in the Canadian prairies. As of 1893, Canada's economic downturn from 1882 to 1897 caused the price per bushel to fall by 64¼ cents ($24/t). During the Laurier administration, thousands of homes were cancelled. The price of wheat soared during the First World War.

In 1928, Canada exported a large amount of wheat, flour and commodities. The Great Depression dealt a heavy blow to Canada, as exports fell to 40% of 1928. As the European market began to grow its own varieties, the European market no longer needed to import Canadian wheat, and then the events of the Second World War blocked trade in the European market. During this industrial revolution, Canada became more of an industrial entity and less of an agricultural country. After the Second World War, Britain signed contracts for a large number of agricultural products, such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada's largest foreign trade partner. From 1943 to 1953, the average export volume of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 tons). The three-year international wheat agreement in 1955 actually lasted for six years, including the export of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

Agricultural Science

Agricultural science began to develop new farming methods and wheat and crop lines, making farming a successful business. At sites such as Dominion Experimental Farm, Rosthern Experimental Station, and Bell Farm. Other places have developed farming methods. From 1914 to 1922, the "Better Farming" train cruised through rural areas of Saskatchewan, educating pioneer farmers. The 1901 census showed that there were 511,100 farms, and the number of farms peaked in 1941, reaching a record 732,800 farms. The Industrial Revolution modernized the agricultural industry, and mechanized cars replaced cattle lands or carriages. Farms have become larger, and mechanization has developed towards industrial agriculture.


Before the industrial revolution and the advent of tractors, combine harvesters, balers, etc., agricultural activities were labor-intensive. From the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century, a large part of the Canadian working population was engaged in high-volume labor and farming methods. After mechanization, scientific progress, and improved marketing practices, farms have become more efficient, larger in scale and less labor intensive. The labor force was released to go to industry, government, transportation, trade and finance. According to the 1951 census, agriculture, animal husbandry and horticulture employed a quarter of Canada’s population and provided products for export and Canadian manufacturing.

Development and Educational Institutions

In order to improve the viability of agriculture as an economic way of life, various national educational institutions have made several improvements. For example, progress and innovation have been made in various fields such as agricultural science, agricultural engineering, agricultural soil science, sustainable agriculture, agricultural productivity, agronomy, biodiversity, bioengineering, irrigation and pig breeding research. Canadian universities engaged in agricultural research include McGill University, Dalhousie University, Laval University, University of Montreal, University of Alberta, University of British Columbia, University of Calgary, University of Guelph, University of Manitoba, Saskatoon Chewon University and Prince Edward Island. The Ontario Agricultural College is located at the University of Guelph and the Western Veterinary College is located at the University of Saskatchewan. The University of Calgary and the University of Montreal also have veterinary schools. The BC Agricultural Classroom Foundation operates in British Columbia.

Canadian Agricultural Land

Canada has a vast territory with great contrast in terms of climate, geography and soil. Although the country has a large area, only 68 million hectares or 7% of the country's land is used for agricultural production. Canadian farms are all concentrated in the south, especially in a narrow strip of more than 400 kilometers adjacent to the United States, located between 49-53° north latitude, similar to the northern part of China's Heilongjiang Province. The most important agricultural area in Canada is the so-called "savannah area", namely the three provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, where the soil is dominated by fertile brown earth and black soil to maintain fertilizer It has good characteristics and is the country’s granary. The disadvantage is insufficient rain.

Another important agricultural area is the "Central Region", namely the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The central region is Canada's most densely populated industrial area. Agriculture is mainly concentrated in the river basin. Its southernmost point is equivalent to my country's Shenyang City. It is an important national animal husbandry base and mainly grows forage crops. The agriculture of the "Atlantic Coast" provinces is concentrated in the coastal areas. Its western region is mountainous and mainly includes cattle breeding and fodder crops. There is only one province in the "Pacific Region", British Columbia, which is mostly high mountains and forests. Timber stocks account for 2/5 of the country, but arable land only accounts for 2% of the province's area. Farms are concentrated on Vancouver Island. This province is the country’s largest production base for apples. In addition, products such as flowers and gardening are also important. Canada’s "Northern Region" is located north of 55°N latitude. There are few commercial farms, but there is great potential for the development of agriculture in this region. It is estimated that this area has 1.2 million hectares of cultivated land and vast grazing land.

Canada has a long winter and most of the country is below freezing, making it a powerful means of biological control because many pests cannot survive in the cold climate.

The diversity of climatic conditions and soil types divide Canada into four main agricultural regions: Atlantic, Central, Prairie and Pacific.

1. Atlantic Area

The potatoes produced in the Atlantic region are the best varieties in North America. It produces horticultural products ranging from apples to bilberries. Most farmers grow cash crops, such as fruits, vegetables and forage grass, while raising pigs, beef cattle and dairy cows. At the same time, the area has large and medium-sized food processing facilities.

2. Central Region

The fertile lowlands of the St. Lawrence River in Ontario and Quebec span densely populated areas of Canada. This area is concentrated with modern cities and large arable land, and is Canada's main corn, livestock and horticultural production area. Maple oar and honey have been important side products for a long time. The warm climate of Southern Ontario provides plenty of sunshine and precipitation to harvest grapes, cherries, peaches and other fruits in large numbers.

Because of the large population, developed industrial base and excellent waterway to the international market, the main food processing plants are located in the central region of Canada.

3. Prairie Region

The prairie area accounts for 80% of the arable land in Canada. The winter is long and severely cold, and the summer is very hot with enough sunshine and little rain. Despite the above disadvantages, the southern part was cultivated into farmland for production through the use of modern technology. Sixty years ago, there was little rain in the area, and strong winds accompanied the desert-like heat and sand in summer to sweep away the shallow topsoil of the area. Through the development of a new farming technique, Canadians have transformed the area into a rich fertile land in the world, producing more than 59.6 million tons of wheat, oats, barley, rape and hemp seeds each year. In addition, there are 20 million hectares of pastures and pastures in the inner plains to raise large numbers of pigs, cattle and sheep.

4. Pacific region

The diverse climate and soil characteristics of the Pacific region make it more diverse in livestock and crop production. Agriculture in the northeast is similar to that of the prairie region, producing grain, rapeseed and some other varieties of root crops and forage. Pastoral activities in the river valleys and pastures of the vast inner central area surpass agricultural activities. The hot and dry climate of the southern valley is very suitable for the development of orchards and vineyards. The main products in the southeast corner of the area are fruits, forage and grain.

The warm and humid climate of the coast and islands nurture a large number of specialty products such as nurseries, cultivated flowers, greenhouse vegetables and berries. The intensive production of livestock, poultry and milk has increased the strength and stability of the agricultural food sector. In addition, food and fish processing have created considerable sales and employment opportunities. The Pacific region is the main port of entry and exit, and nearly 30% of the outgoing cargo volume is agricultural products, mainly including grassland food and agricultural food.

Canadian Livestock

Canada has a considerable number of beef cattle, dairy cows and live pigs. Beef cattle are widely recognized for their growth rate, breeding characteristics and meat quality. In recent years, through the use of artificial insemination and embryo transfer, genetic improvement of beef cattle has been accelerated. Canada is China's largest exporter of genetic pigs, due to the excellent quality of its lean pigs. Canada is China's third largest supplier of beef cattle, sperm and embryos. Because its varieties can adapt many types of climates. Its agricultural technology and many excellent varieties are of great help to the development of China's agriculture, especially to meet the needs of agricultural development in arid areas.

The number of dairy cows in Canada is 1.2 million, of which 92% are black and white varieties. About 90% of dairy cows are bred by artificial insemination. Therefore, the varieties bred by breeders in this country are known for their milk production and long lifespan. Under the country's breeding and management conditions, the official record of milk production for mature black and white cows is an average annual milk production of 8,878 liters. There are more than 12 million pigs in Canada, of which 1.3 million are breeding pigs. The country’s live pigs are known for their high quality, lean meat and good health. Canada’s poultry industry is spread across the country and is directly proportional to the population density. Due to the climate, almost all poultry are raised in indoor facilities. If an efficient mechanized system is used, a breeding unit can produce 1 million dozen eggs. For poultry meat, a single operator can provide 640 tons of chicken meat by raising 350,000 broilers each year.


The world's population growth continues to increase the demand for food, and at the same time the demand for chemical fertilizers is also increasing. The world's demand for chemical fertilizers is increasing at a rate of 10%. Canada is the world's largest fertilizer producer, and its output accounts for about one-third of the world's total. Canada has 1.2 billion tons of fertilizer reserves, ranking second in the world. In addition to meeting its own needs, Canadian fertilizers are also exported in large quantities.

Potash is the general name for a group of minerals and chemicals containing potassium (K), which is a basic nutrient for plants and an important element of fertilizers. Potash fertilizer is mainly produced in the form of potassium chloride (KCl), but the content of potassium in mineral deposits can be different, so in order to maintain consistency, we often use potassium oxide (K2O) equivalent to measure and refer to potassium fertilizer.

Canada's potash output in 2018 was 22.7 million tons, an increase of 2.4 million tons compared to 2017's 20.3 million tons, making 2018 a record year for Canadian potash production.


This bar chart shows Canada's annual potash production from 2009 to 2018. The output in 2009 was 7.2 million tons. It increased to 15.6 million tons in 2010 and 17.7 million tons in 2011. Production decreased to 15.1 million tons in 2012, and then increased steadily. In 2015, it was 18.8 million tons, then fell slightly to 17.9 million tons in 2016, and then increased to a 10-year peak of 22.7 million tons in 2018.


                                                              World potash production in 2018 (potassium chloride)


In 2018, global potash production was 68.1 million tons. Canada is the world's largest producer of potash, accounting for 33% of the total global potash production in 2018. In 2018, four countries (Canada, Belarus, Russia and China) accounted for 80% of the world's potash production.


The bar graph shows the world's potash production from 2009 to 2018. In 2009, the output of potash fertilizer was 31.1 million tons, and it increased steadily, reaching 67.1 million tons in 2018.

In 2018, the estimated global potash reserves were 5.8 billion tons (potassium oxide equivalent). Canada has the second largest reserves of 1.2 billion tons. The following table shows the leading countries in potash fertilizer reserves.




The chart shows Canada's potash exports from 2009 to 2018. Exports were 6.8 million tons in 2009, peaked at 17.9 million tons in 2015, and then slightly dropped to 16 million tons in 2016. Then in 2018 exports increased to 21.9 million tons.

Three countries (Canada, Belarus and Russia) accounted for 79% of the international potash trade volume in 2018.


                                                               World potash export volume (potassium chloride)


The figure shows the world's potash exports from 2009 to 2018. Export volume in 2009 was the lowest point in 10 years, 19.7 million tons. Then the export volume increased to 44.2 million tons in 2011, 49.6 million tons in 2014, and 53.1 million tons in 2018. Exports declined slightly and were somewhere in between.


From 2012 to the first half of 2017, the overall price of potash has been declining. In the second half of 2017, the price of potash fertilizer began to rise, reaching US$268/ton by the end of 2018.


The graph shows the spot price of standard bulk potassium chloride (USD/ton) per kilogram delivered in Vancouver from 2009 to 2018. The price in January 2009 was CAD 844. Then the trend rose and reached 870 Canadian dollars in February 2009 and March 2009. The price began to fall in April 2009, fell to $313 in March 2010, and then rebounded to $484 in February 2012. Until 2016, when the lowest prices from September to December of that year were US$215 and US$216, the price has been in a downward trend. From February 2017 to April 2017, it is USD 214. Prices began to rise in the second half of 2017 and reached US$268 by December 2018.

Nutrien Canada's largest fertilizer company

Nutrien is a Canadian fertilizer company headquartered in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It is the world's largest producer of potash fertilizer and the third largest producer of nitrogen fertilizer. It has 1,500 retail stores and more than 20,000 employees. It is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (stock code: NTR) and the New York Stock Exchange (stock code: NTR). As of January 2018, it has a market value of $34 billion. It was formed by the merger of PotashCorp and Agrium, and the transaction was completed on January 1, 2018.


PotashCorp and Agrium first proposed a merger in September 2016. The proposal for the merger was made under the circumstance of lower fertilizer prices, which led to the hope that larger companies could better raise prices. The new company also hopes to reduce costs through mergers. It estimates that it will be able to reduce costs by $500 million. The transaction was originally expected to be completed in mid-2017, but was postponed to January 2018 due to regulatory obstacles; the US Federal Trade Commission's final regulatory approval was only obtained in December 2017. According to the terms of the merger, former Potash Corporation shareholders acquired 52% of Nutrien's shares, while Agrium shareholders acquired 48% of the shares. Agrium CEO Charles Magro becomes the CEO of the new company, and PotashCorp CEO Jochen Tilk serves as executive chairman. Nutrien is headquartered in Saskatoon, the former headquarters of Potash Corporation, but it will maintain the company's office in Calgary, former headquarters of Agrum.


Nutrien, through its Australian subsidiary Landmark Operations, announced on February 27, 2019 that it intends to acquire RuralCo, an Australian rural retail organization. The acquisition was completed on October 1, 2019, after which Ruralco was delisted from the Australian Stock Exchange. After this acquisition, Nutrien now provides 650 rural merchandise stores in Australia, accounting for approximately 45% of all rural merchandise stores in Australia.

About Nutrien

Nutrien produces and distributes more than 25 million tons of potash, nitrogen and phosphate products for global agricultural, industrial and feed customers. Combined with our leading agricultural retail network, which serves more than 500,000 grower accounts, Nutrien can well meet the needs of the growing world and create value for stakeholders.

Nutrien has a network of more than 2,000 retail locations in seven countries, providing a wide range of products and services to help growers around the world feed the future. Nutrien provides customers with complete agricultural solutions, including nutrients, crop protection products, seeds, services and digital tools.

Nutrien is the world's largest potash fertilizer producer, with a potash production capacity of more than 20 million tons in six low-cost potash mines in Saskatchewan. With decades of high-quality reserves and our years of expansion, Nutrien can already well meet the global long-term potash demand.

Nutrien is the world's third-largest manufacturer of nitrogen production equipment, with a capacity of more than 7 million gross tonnages and the ability to produce more than 11 million tons of total nitrogen products in the United States, Canada and Trinidad.

Nutrien operates two large integrated phosphate mining and processing facilities and four regional upgrade plants in the United States. Nutrien is now self-sufficient in phosphate rock.

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