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University of Toronto

Originally controlled by the Church of England, the first university founded in the colony of “Upper Canada” is structured as a collegiate system, much like prestigious universities in the UK. The seven colleges all have distinct history and traditions.

The University of Toronto has many pioneering achievements to its name, including Canada’s first academic publishing house, the first forest science faculty in the country, and becoming the first Canadian university to reach more than C$1 billion (£586 million) in endowment.

Influential academic movements began at the university, including the Toronto School of literary criticism and communication theory, the NP-completeness theory in computer science, and research into stem cell treatment.

The University of Toronto's downtown campus contains several historic buildings and courtyards that rival Europe’s finest.

More than 700 undergraduate degrees and 200 postgraduate degrees are on offer and the university is one of the best in the world for medicine.

Notable alumni include five Canadian prime ministers and the writers Michael Ondaatje and Margaret Atwood. In total, 10 Nobel laureates are affiliated with the university.

2. the University of British Columbia

The oldest university in the province, the the University of British Columbia is one of the most competitive in Canada.

There are two campuses: one in Vancouver and one in Kelowna. The main campus in Vancouver is near several beaches and boasts views over the North Shore mountains. There are a number of botanical and memorial gardens on campus as well as a renowned performing arts centre.

The university offers a number of scholarships, including the Donald A. Wehrung International Student Award for candidates from war-torn countries.

Eight Nobel prizewinners are associated with the university, as are 71 Rhodes scholars and 65 Olympic medallists.

The world’s largest cyclotron – a type of particle accelerator – is housed at the university, in TRIUMF, the country’s national laboratory for particle and nuclear physics.

The university is organised into 12 faculties on the Vancouver campus and a further seven on the Kelowna campus. The university offers a special joint undergraduate programme with Sciences Po in Paris.

Three Canadian prime ministers have been educated at UBC, including current prime minister Justin Trudeau, who graduated with a bachelor of education degree.

3. McGill University

McGill University is the only Canadian institution represented in the World Economic Forum’s Global University Leaders Forum, which comprises the heads of 26 of the world’s top higher education institutions.

It was founded in 1821 and the main campus is at the base of Mount Royal in downtown Montreal. Many first-year students also live on the park-like campus.

All original buildings were constructed using local grey limestone, giving the campus a striking aesthetic.

In 1829, McGill founded the nation’s first faculty of medicine, and to this day the university scores particularly highly in world rankings for clinical subjects.

The university offers more than 300 degree subjects to more than 31,000 students from 150 countries. It counts itself as one of Canada’s most internationally diverse institutions.

Singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen and the actor William Shatner are graduates of McGill. The university also educates more Rhodes scholars than any other Canadian university.

4. McMaster University

McMaster University is located in Hamilton, Ontario with the main campus situated on 121 hectares of land near Hamilton’s Royal Botanical Gardens.

The university is named after William McMaster, a prominent Canadian senator and banker who donated C$900,000 to found the institution.

McMaster’s medical school is world-renowned and there are also faculties of engineering, business, humanities, social sciences and science. The university places a strong emphasis on research working to target some of the most urgent needs in society, particularly in the field of health sciences. This includes research from the Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, which turned bits of human skin into blood cells, which could help to alleviate the shortage of blood donors.

Students and faculty come from more than 90 countries and the university holds some 70 international exchange agreements with universities around the world. 

The university’s motto, chosen from Colossians 1:17, is: “All things cohere in Christ” and is unusual in that it is written in Greek instead of the traditional Latin or English. 

5. University of Montreal

The only francophone university in the top five, the University of Montreal is the second-largest university in the country in terms of student numbers, with more than 37,000 students enrolled. A quarter of all students are international.

The University of Montreal’s main campus is on the slopes of Mount Royal. The distinctive central building was built in an Art Deco style.

Seventy-four per cent of the student body is enrolled on an undergraduate degree. A students’ union represents undergraduate and postgraduate students and it has three affiliated fraternities and sororities.

University sport is popular – the teams are known as the Carabins and compete in badminton, Canadian football and hockey, among other sports.

Many renowned business leaders are graduates of the university, including Louis R. Chênevert, chief executive officer of the United Technologies Corporation. Other graduates are noted for their contributions to scientific research, including innovations in nuclear power, visual perception and quantum cryptography.

The university also boasts former prime minister Pierre Trudeau and 10 premiers of Quebec among its alumni.


University of Toronto

Located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, it is a public federal research university. Its main campus is located in downtown Toronto, and the main buildings are scattered around Queens Park, adjacent to the Ontario Government and Parliament. It was originally established according to the royal charter promulgated by George IV of England in 1827. It was the earliest institution of higher learning established in Upper Canada during the British colonial era, and was called "King's College". By 1849, because he had left the Anglican Church, he no longer belonged to the University of Religion. The University of Toronto now has three campuses, namely the main campus St. George campus and the two branch campuses are the Mississauga campus and the Scarborough campus. Affected by the British university system, the University of Toronto is one of the few universities in North America that implements a federal system of colleges. It consists of 11 colleges, each of which has certain autonomy in the administration, education, and finance of the college.

In academic research, the University of Toronto is at a leading level in Canada and the world in many fields. The donations it receives, the awards it receives, academic publications and citations, and the number of collections are all tops in Canada. Since the twentieth century, in the field of literature, the University of Toronto has been known for literary criticism and communication theory-related research and courses; in the medical field, it is the birthplace of insulin and a pioneer in stem cell research. In terms of science and technology, the team at the University of Toronto discovered and verified the first black hole. It was also the origin of inventions such as electronic pacemakers, multi-touch technology, electron microscopes, replicating T cells, and pilot clothing. Since the 21st century, the University of Toronto has become the origin and pioneer of the artificial intelligence deep learning revolution. The number of scientific papers published by the University of Toronto every year is second only to Harvard University in North America, and the number of citations ranks among the top five in the world. It is one of the only two members of the American University Association outside the United States.

The University of Toronto has taught 3 Canadian Governors, 4 Canadian Prime Ministers and 14 Supreme Court Justices. According to 2006 statistics, the University of Toronto includes 15 foreign academicians of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (65% of Canada) and 20 foreign academicians of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (28% of Canada). In addition, from 1980 to 2006, he received 11 international awards from the Gairdner Foundation (52% of the total), and was awarded the title of 44 Guggenheim Fellows (44% of the total). There are 16 foreign academicians (accounting for 42% of the Canadian total), 10 foreign academicians (accounting for 36% of the Canadian total) and 23 Sloan researchers (30% of the Canadian total). As of 2019, the University of Toronto has accumulated 10 Nobel Prize winners, 5 Turing Award winners and 94 Rhodes scholars.

The University of Toronto St. George campus is located about two kilometers north of the downtown Toronto business district, adjacent to Yorkville, one of the world's most exclusive business districts. The entire campus covers 180 acres, and the Queens Park in its hinterland is home to the Ontario Parliament Building and several other cultural sites. Using the various green areas and interconnected courtyards on the campus, the University of Toronto has developed a unique and remarkable urban park in the core area of the city center. University Avenue, named after the University of Toronto, serves as a main road in the center of the city. Since Queens Park has been leading to the shore of Lake Ontario, there are many major stations of Toronto Metro Line 1 along the way.

The buildings in the eastern and central parts of the campus were mostly built from the second half of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. They basically adopted Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. The completion of this complex dates back to 1858 at the earliest, and later to 1929, it is one of the representative landforms of the St. George campus. The University’s traditional central area, the Front Campus, is located next to the oval lawn in the King’s College Circle. Among them, the main building of the University College built in 1857 is very conspicuous. It combines the characteristics of Richardson Romane and Norman architecture. This artistic effect created by designer Frederick William Cumberland has been derived from European praise. When Count Dufflin's Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood visited in 1872, he pointed out that before arriving in Toronto, he had never thought that such a magnificent building could be seen on the American continent. Later in 1968, this building was selected as the National Historic Site of Canada. Another landmark building is the university’s town hall, built in 1907 as a typical neoclassical building. Its main function is to be the venue of the annual graduation ceremony, but various academic and social events are held throughout the year.


The neoclassical style hall has a unique dome and a rotunda surrounded by Ioni columnsKnox College has a unique group of sandstone buildings, symbolizing the Gothic style of the college. Its unique cloister design isolates the courtyard. In the northeast corner of the campus is the Hart House, a Gothic Revival-style student activity center. It is well-known for its glazed windows installed in the lobby and the quoted "On the Freedom of Press" engraved on the building wall. The adjacent soldier tower is about 44 meters high and is the most famous building in the neighboring area. Its stone arches are engraved with the names of all university members who lost their lives on the battlefields of the two world wars of the 20th century. The carillon in the soldier’s tower is composed of 51 species and is only played on certain days, such as the National Day of Remembrance and the graduation ceremony.

From the north of the University College, it is the main building of the Tudor James style Trinity College, but its attached chapel is a vertical Gothic building of the Gilles Gilbert Scott style. The chapel has an outer wall mainly composed of sandstone and an inner wall composed of limestone. What connects Trinity College with the university arena and law school is the Philosophical Path, a beautiful path. Located on the east side of Queen’s Park is Victoria College, centered on a Roman-style main building, which is characterized by a significant contrast between the red sandstone and gray limestone used in the outer wall.


The picture shows the UTM library. Compared with the other two campuses, other buildings are more modern.


University of Toronto Mississauga is one of the  campuses of the University of Toronto and is located in Mississauga, west of Toronto. The Mississauga campus is about 33 kilometers from downtown Toronto and area only the main campus.

The Mississauga campus, established in 1965, was originally named Erindale College, and was later established as a branch campus of the University of Toronto in 1998. Today, the undergraduate departments of this campus include the departments of anthropology, biology, chemistry and physics, economics, English and drama, language, geography, history, communications culture and information technology, management, Department of Mathematics and Computational Science, Department of Philosophy, Department of Politics, Department of Psychology, Department of Social Sciences and Department of Vision. This provides students with about 150 degrees and about 15,000 students studying in it. The earliest building on the Mississauga campus was named "North Tower" and construction began in 1966. It was originally planned to be a temporary building, temporarily becoming the administrative building of Erindale College. After being merged into the University of Toronto, it was renovated and became the main building of the humanities.

After 2000s, in order , The number of students increased.  In order to meet the teaching needs, the Mississauga campus began to expand and renovate old buildings, such as the new six-story branch of the North Building was completed and opened in 2018.


At the center of the picture is the UTSC Science Building, and on the right is the Art and Administration Building

University of Toronto Scarborough Campus

It is one of the campuses of the University of Toronto. It is considered to be a medium-sized campus and the smallest of the three campuses of the University of Toronto. The Scarborough campus is located in the Scarborough district of Toronto, Ontario, in a suburban environment, with many parks and residential communities around the campus. The Scarborough campus has 13 different departments, namely the Department of Biology, Department of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Department of English, Department of Humanities, Department of Management, Department of Economics and Management, Center for French and Languages, Department of Philosophy, Physics Department of Environmental Science, Department of Psychology and Department of Social Science. This branch campus offers 168 degrees and related coop education. There are currently about 14,000 students studying here. In addition, the Scarborough campus, in conjunction with Centennial Institute of Technology, offers double degrees in journalism, emerging media, first aid, and industrial microbiology.

The original building of this campus was Andrew House, designed in a brutalist style and completed in 1964, named after the designer. Since the 1970s, the buildings in the campus have mainly adopted modernist styles, including libraries, teaching buildings for arts and sciences, and entertainment facilities. However, the construction of the research center for the graduate education and the new lecture hall were not completed until 2008, including the administrative building completed in 2005.

Administrative structure

The University of Toronto has always been a decentralized institution, with administrative power shared by its central regulatory authority, academic departments, and affiliated colleges. The university’s legislative organization is a unicameral management committee that oversees the university’s overall academic, economic, and internal affairs. Before 1971, the two-chamber system composed of the board of directors and the university senate controlled all administrative affairs of the university. The honorary principal of the University of Toronto is usually a former Governor of Canada, the Governor of Ontario or a diplomat. It is the nominal principal of the school, and the administrative principal is appointed by the committee as the chief executive officer.

Unlike most higher education institutions in North America, the University of Toronto is a federal university with a basic structure that is modeled after Cambridge and Oxford in the United Kingdom. Each college has a certain degree of autonomy in admissions, scholarships, educational programs, and other related academic or economic affairs. This also includes the power of housing and related matters owned by traditional residential colleges. Each college has its own history, characteristics and resources. In addition to providing accommodation facilities, it is also responsible for part of the teaching affairs. This system was gradually perfected in the nineteenth century. In order to maintain vitality, the theological seminary of the Church used various methods to confederate with the University of Toronto. The requirement that they want to retain religious traditions in secular institutions shaped the present day of the University of Toronto. College federal system. Although the power is vested in the University of Toronto, many of the unique cultures of the college are preserved. For example, in addition to the University of Toronto Student Union, the college also has an independent student union. In addition, even if it is the same academic department or the same extracurricular activities, the college may set up related societies. When applying for the University of Toronto, every student needs to choose the college he wants to enter. Trinity College, Innes College and Victoria College require students to put the college as their first choice before being admitted to this college.


The picture shows the interior of the chapel of Trinity College, which reflects the Anglican culture of the University of Toronto


University College is the first inter-religious college. It was established after the university was secularized in 1853. Knox College, a Presbyterian college, and Wycliffe Theological College, a lower church college, initially encouraged their students to obtain non-theological degrees at university colleges. In 1885, the two colleges formally joined the University of Toronto and became a federal college in 1890. In the same year, this federal system was strongly opposed by the Victorian College of Methodism in Coburg, but the financial assistance at the University of Toronto convinced it to join. Decades after the death of the first president of the University of Toronto, John Strachan, Trinity College, also an Anglican seminary, joined the Confederation in 1904. Immediately afterwards, St. Michael’s College, founded by the Catholic Basilica of Saint Basil, joined in 1910. Among the colleges that joined the Federation, two colleges finally emerged independently from the University of Toronto. One of them is the Toronto Baptist College, which was relocated to Hamilton in 1930 and renamed McMaster University. The other is the Queen’s College of Presbyterians in Kingston, which was later renamed Queen’s University.


The picture shows the Old Vic, the main building of Victoria College


After the end of the Second World War, the University of Toronto founded new colleges, Innes College and Woodsworth College in 1962, 1964 and 1974, respectively, and they are all non-religious colleges. These three colleges and university colleges form an affiliated college of the University of Toronto, which is directly managed and budgeted by the university. In 1963, the Macy’s Foundation formed the Macy’s College to specifically admit graduate students. Regis College joined the University of Toronto as a Jesuit seminary in 1979.

Corresponding to the four federal colleges, there are seven independent colleges. Seven colleges, Knox College, Massey College, Regis College, St. Michael’s College, Trinity College, Victoria College, and Wickliffe College, operate legally as independent entities, and each college has the respective financial contributions are approved. Although St. Michael’s College, Trinity College and Victoria College still recognize their original religious culture, they have adopted secular policies in non-theological affairs such as teaching and admission. Some colleges are themselves implementing a federal system, such as Emmanuel College at Victoria College and St. Hilda College at Trinity College. St. Michael’s College originally owned St. Joseph’s College, but it merged in 2006. Yurt College, once a federal college, was merged into Knox College until 1991. Today, Knox College, Regis College, Wycliffe College, and the theology departments of Emmanuel, St. Michael, and Trinity can award postgraduate degrees in theology, including the joint establishment with Toronto Theological College. Theological degree.

Academic system


The picture shows the BA Information Technology Center, the main teaching building of the Engineering Department

The College of Arts and Sciences is the main undergraduate academic college of the University of Toronto and manages most of the courses in the college system. Although those colleges themselves are not entirely responsible for teaching tasks, they will have unique academic programs and lecture series. Such as Trinity College’s International Relations Course, University College’s Canadian Studies, Victoria College’s Renaissance Course, Innis College’s Photographic Studies and Urban Studies, New College’s Gender Studies, Woods worth College’s Industrial Relations Course, and St. Michael’s The medieval course at Lele College. Rotman School of Management cooperates with the College of Arts and Sciences to offer undergraduate business courses. Another major undergraduate academic college is the College of Applied Science and Engineering.

At the same time, the University of Toronto is the birthplace of the Toronto School, which is influential in communication theory and literary criticism. The purpose of this school is described as "theory of the priority of communication in the construction of human culture and ideas", which was based on the research of Harold Innis and Eric Havelock, and was subsequently adopted by Herbert ·Marshall McLuhan and others perfected. Since 1963, the McLuhan Culture and Technology Project of the School of Information has been used to teach and improve the theoretical research of the Toronto School.


The offices of the School of Applied Science and Engineering are located in the Sandford Fleming building in the picture


The University of Toronto is also an academic base for a number of major arts and humanities projects, including the Canadian Biographical Index, which began recording in 1959, and the Erasmus Collection, published in 1969. For example, literature related to British drama art before the Puritan period was included in the "Early English Drama Archives", and the "Old English Index" compiled the early English grammar used in the Anglo-Saxon period. The Munch International Research Center contains many projects and courses in the field of international relations and foreign policy of the University of Toronto. With the outbreak of the Cold War, its Slavic research developed into an important institution to study Soviet politics and economics, receiving funding from the Rockefeller, Ford, and Andrew Mellon Foundation. The Munch Center is also the headquarters of the G20 research team, which conducts independent monitoring and analysis of the G20; it is also the home of the Citizen Lab, whose goal is to conduct research on network monitoring. The University of Toronto has offices around the world, such as Berlin, Hong Kong and Siena.

The Dara Lana School of Public Health was formerly the University of Toronto School of Health and has been operated by the Rockefeller Foundation since 1927. After the SARS crisis in 2003, the college revived and became the largest public health college in Canada today, with more than 750 faculty members, 800 students, and cooperative training institutions all over the world. More than 39 million Canadian dollars are invested in the college’s relevant research each year, including the progress of global health, the impact of tobacco on human health, and air pollution and other hot social health issues. The University of Toronto School of Medicine and ten hospitals form its education system, which can provide treatment, research and consulting services to patients and customers in Canada and abroad. A core network of this system is called University Health Organization (UHN), which is the Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto Rehabilitation Research Institute and Toronto Western Hospital. They form Canada’s largest medical and life science research cluster.

Rotman College has developed a comprehensive thinking methodology and training based on its curriculum development; surgeons in medical institutions will be appointed relevant consultant positions in universities and colleges. The School of Law, established in 1887, emphasized liberal education and jurisprudence in its formal teaching, which was considered an unusual teaching method at the time. Before the outbreak of World War II, the law school's move helped the Canadian legal education system to slowly outperform the traditional legal apprenticeship system. The University also has a special teacher college, the Ontario Institute of Education and two other experimental colleges, namely the Children’s Education Institute and the University of Toronto Affiliated Middle School, of which the University of Toronto Affiliated Middle School is a private high school managed by the university.

The university also has some independent research institutions, such as the Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, the Canadian Pontifical Institute for Medieval Sciences, and the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences. Because the University of Toronto is a research university, each subject has different teaching and research methods, which directly led to the establishment of the Office of Teaching Promotion (OTA) in January 2002. The main job of the Teaching Promotion Office is to help scientific research professors improve their teaching abilities and try to improve the university’s comprehensive ability and culture. The promotion office's evaluation measures on professors from academic and teaching aspects are effectively implemented by linking the teaching results with the corresponding teaching salary. Kenneth, the only director of the office, pointed out that the establishment of this institution has brought dramatic changes to the university: "The principals and deputy principals of teaching, deans and department heads all actively commend outstanding teaching achievements, and regard this as the college’s healthy vitality and Symbol of honor." In 2009, the Teaching Promotion Office was merged into the new Teaching Support and Innovation Center (CTSI), which continues to provide assistance and improve related mechanisms for university teaching at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Library and collections


The picture shows the Roberts Library, which contains most of the literature of the University of Toronto in the field of humanities and social sciences


The University of Toronto Library System is the third largest academic library system in North America, second only to Harvard University and Yale University. This ranking is calculated by the number of volumes in its collection. As of 2019, there are more than 12 million books in the library system, 5.6 million rolls of microfilm, and more than 1 million maps, movies, photos, and recording files. The largest of these is the Roberts Library, which has about 5 million volumes of humanities and social science related documents. Thomas Fischer Rare Book Library is one of the world's largest rare book libraries open to the public, and its collection includes documents from different periods such as Egyptian papyrus, cradle and sing books; the scope of the literature includes Western Literature, Canadian Literature, Aristotle, Darwin, Spanish Civil War, History of Science, History of Medicine, History of Printing, etc. There are more than 40,000 volumes of Chinese documents from the Song Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty in the East Asian Library of Zheng Yutong. The original holder was Mu Xuexun. Except for all the 1.9 million volumes of literature in each college, most of the remaining literature is scattered in different academic libraries. The University of Toronto Art Center, located in University College, has three major art collections. The Malcove collection contains a large number of sculptures, bronzes, furniture, portraits and rituals from early Christianity and the Byzantine Empire. It also has glass products from the Greco-Roman period and the 1538 painting "Adam and Eve" by old Lucas Kranach. In addition, the collection also contains modern Canadian works of art, and there are a large number of works of seven-person painting school and nineteenth-century landscape painters in the art collection of University College.

School reputation

The University of Toronto is generally considered to be one of Canada’s top universities and a member of the U15 University Alliance of Canada. The University of Toronto ranked 24th in the world and 1st in Canada in the 2019 ARWU ranking of Shanghai Jiaotong University. In the QS World Rankings 2020 list, it ranked 29th in the world and 1st in Canada. The University of Toronto ranks 18th in the world and 1st in Canada in THE's 2020 list. In its reputation list released in the same year, the University of Toronto ranked 19th in the world. U.S. News ranked University of Toronto 20th in the world and 1st in Canada. The Canadian magazine Maclean's launched the 2019 list that ranked the University of Toronto as the number one Canadian university in medicine, although the University of Toronto chose not to participate in the magazine’s selection survey back in 2006.

Scientific research achievements


Pictured is AeroVelo Atlas who won the Igor Sikorsky human helicopter competition


Since 1926, the University of Toronto has been a member of the American Association of Universities, the top research university in North America. It has the largest amount of research funding among Canadian universities. In 2010 alone, it directly spent nearly 900 million Canadian dollars. In 2018, Research Infosource selected the University of Toronto as the best research university in Canada, and its income from 2017 was obtained from off-campus C$1.15 billion in research funding. At the same time, each college within the university has an average annual research and development funding of 400,000 Canadian dollars, while graduate students can receive 60,000 Canadian dollars. Among them, the Canadian federal government has the largest proportion of sponsorship. Funding from three government agencies, CIHR, NSERC, and SSHRC, accounts for one-third of the research funding outside the University of Toronto. About 8% of the funds are provided by various enterprises, most of which belong to the healthcare industry.

The first practical electron microscope was built by the physics department in 1938. During World War II, the university developed the G-suit, a life-saving garment worn by Allied fighter plane pilots, later adopted for use by astronauts. Development of the infrared chemiluminescence technique improved analyses of energy behaviours in chemical reactions. In 1963, the asteroid 2104 Toronto is discovered in the David Dunlap Observatory in Richmond Hill and is named after the university. In 1972, studies on Cygnus X-1 led to the publication of the first observational evidence proving the existence of black holes. Toronto astronomers The first practical electron microscope have also discovered the Uranian moons of Caliban and Sycorax, the dwarf galaxies of Andromeda I, II and III, and the supernova SN 1987A. A pioneer in computing technology, the university designed and built UTEC, one of the world's first operational computers, and later purchased Ferut, the second commercial computer after UNIVAC I. Multi-touch technology was developed at Toronto, with applications ranging from handheld devices to collaboration walls. The AeroVelo Atlas, which won the Igor I. Sikorsky Human Powered Helicopter Competition in 2013, was developed by the university's team of students and graduates and was tested in Vaughan.


The discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921 is considered among the most significant events in the history of medicine. The stem cell was discovered at the university in 1963, forming the basis for bone marrow transplantation and all subsequent research on adult and embryonic stem cells. This was the first of many findings at Toronto relating to stem cells, including the identification of pancreatic and retinal stem cells. The cancer stem cell was first identified in 1997 by Toronto researchers, who have since found stem cell associations in leukemia, brain tumors and colorectal cancer. Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index, the infant cereal Pablum, the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker. The first successful single-lung transplant was performed at Toronto in 1981, followed by the first nerve transplant in 1988, and the first double-lung transplant in 1989. Researchers identified the maturation promoting factor that regulates cell division, and discovered the T-cell receptor, which triggers responses of the immune system. The university is credited with isolating the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer's disease, among numerous other diseases. Between 1914 and 1972, the university operated the Connaught Medical Research Laboratories, now part of the pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. Among the research conducted at the laboratory was the development of gel electrophoresis.

The University of Toronto is the primary research presence that supports one of the world's largest concentrations of biotechnology firms. More than 5,000 principal investigators reside within 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) from the university grounds in Toronto's Discovery District, conducting $1 billion of medical research annually. MaRS Discovery District is a research park that serves commercial enterprises and the university's technology transfer ventures. In 2008, the university disclosed 159 inventions and had 114 active start-up companies. Its SciNet Consortium operates the most powerful supercomputer in Canada.

University of British Columbia

It is a public university located in British Columbia, Canada. It is also a member of the U15 University Alliance, the Association of Great Britain Universities, the Pacific Rim University Alliance, and Universities 21. This is the oldest university in the province and one of the most competitive universities in Canada. It has two campuses in Corona, Vancouver. The main campus in Vancouver is close to several beaches, with beautiful views of the North Shore Mountains. There are many botanical gardens and memorials on the campus, as well as a famous art performance center. The university offers a variety of scholarships, including international student awards to candidates from war-torn countries. Eight Nobel Prize winners are associated with the university, which has also created 71 Rhodes and 65 Olympic medalists. The world’s largest cyclotron is located in the Victory Nuclear Physics Laboratory of university. The university has 12 colleges on the Vancouver campus and 7 colleges on the kelowna campus. The university provides joint undergraduate courses with the Paris "Popular Science". Three Canadian prime ministers studied at this university, including the current prime minister, Justin Trudeau, who got a bachelor's degree in education.



Founded in 1908, the University of British Columbia was established through the "British Columbia University Act" to meet the needs of the people of British Columbia for higher education. It was originally founded as McGill University College of British Columbia (McGill). University College of British Columbia), and until 1915 the degree was awarded by McGill University. After two years of hard work, the university’s campus was finally settled in Vancouver in 1910, and the construction of the campus began. In 1913, Dr. Frank Wesbrook was hired as the president of the university, but the construction process took place in 1914. Suspended due to funding issues and the First World War. In 1915, the university officially opened and admitted a total of 379 students, including 228 male students and 151 female students during the First World War.

The University of British Columbia’s student courses cover military science. By the end of the war, a total of 697 students participated in the war and 78 of them were killed. After the end of the Second World War, the number of students at the University of British Columbia skyrocketed, and the university awarded the 100,000 diploma in 1979. So far, the University of British Columbia has attracted students from 151 countries to study, and in 2013, China, the United States, and India were the main source countries for international students. In 2004, the British Columbia government proposed to establish a branch campus of the University of British Columbia in the Okanagan area. The following year, the University of British Columbia merged with Okanagan University College and established the University of British Columbia Kelowna Branch in Kelowna.


The University of British Columbia’s consolidated revenue in the 2012 fiscal year was $2.01 billion, of which 49.9% came from federal and provincial government units, 20.4% came from tuition, and the rest of the funding sources included sales, investment income, private donations, etc. The university’s annual consolidated expenditure is nearly $1.97 billion. Moody's Company conducted a credit rating on the University of British Columbia in 2010, and assessed the university's credit rating for the 2010 fiscal year as Aa1.In 2001, the "Tuition Fee Freeze Act" was changed, resulting in public universities in the province gradually increasing their tuition fees in the next few years after the passage of the bill, while domestic and international students of the University of British Columbia’s bachelor’s degree per credit The average tuition fee of the school also rose to Canadian dollars $159.81 and Canadian dollars $776.67 in 2013, which means that the annual tuition fees for full-time domestic and international students of this school are about Canadian dollars $4794.3 and Canadian dollars $23,000 respectively. In contrast, the average tuition fee for domestic students in the University of British Columbia bachelor's program in 2001 was $2181. According to Statistics Canada, the average tuition fee for domestic students at public universities in Canada was $5581 in 2012, and the average tuition fee for international students in the same year was about $19,000. This indicates that the tuition fee for domestic students at the University of British Columbia is still lower than the national average. Student tuition fees are higher than the national average.


Chen's Performing Arts Center, Vancouver Campus

Campus Facilities

The main campus of the University of British Columbia (Vancouver) covers an area of 4.02 km2 (414 A) and has many famous facilities. The Botanical Garden at the University of British Columbia in 1916 was created by John Davidson. This botanical garden is 4.4km2 (110A) and there are about 50,000 species of plants. The botanical garden includes 11 kinds of gardens, such as the Asian Garden ( Nitobe Japanese Garden), the American Garden (Turkish Botanical Garden), horticulture. The University of British Columbia has the second largest library system of the University of British Columbia in Canada, with more than 5.4 million books, as well as tens of thousands of maps and e-books. Among them, the number of Asian language books is the largest in the country. Its geographic information center also has the largest remote sensing image database in British Columbia, with a collection of more than 2.5 million remote sensing photos taken between 1922 and 2009, covering most of British Columbia and parts of Yukon. In addition, the University of British Columbia also owns the world’s largest rotating mercury surface telescope, a 0.24 km2 (25 A) research farm, a marine science research center, and a TRIUMF (English: TRIUMF) Research Center. The school is one of the signatories of the Talari Declaration, and in 1997 it became the first university in Canada to promote sustainable development policies. In 2010, both the 21st Winter Olympic Games and the 10th Winter Paralympics will officially hold ice hockey and sled hockey competitions at the University’s Doug Michel Thunderbird Stadium.

The University of British Columbia Press was established in 1971 to publish literature on domestic studies and Pacific studies.The beautiful UBC campus attracts many film and TV show directors. The film company gave UBC $2,500 a day. Many programs are filmed on UBC campus every year, such as: "Fifty Shades of Grey" (English: Fifty Shades of Grey), "Tomorrowland" (English: Tomorrowland), "Night at the Museum" (English: Night at the Museum) ), "Edge of Crisis" (English: Fringe, also translated: "Misted Files"), "Green Arrow" (English: Arrow, also translated: Arrow, Green Arrow), etc.


Research results

The University of British Columbia is a member of the 21st Century University, which is an association of leading international research institutions and the only Canadian member of the Pacific Rim University Association (a alliance of 42 leading research universities in the Pacific Rim). In 2017, the University of British Columbia's sponsored research income (source of external funding) ranked second among Canadian universities, with a total of 577 million Canadian dollars. In the same year, the average research grant income of university faculty and staff was US$249,900, ranking eighth in the country, while the average research grant income of graduate students was US$55,200.The university receives a ranking of university academic papers and research output, which uses citation analysis to assess the impact of the university on academic publications. In 2019, the "World University Scientific Paper Performance Rankings" ranked UBC 27th in the world and Canada second. According to the 2018-19 academic performance university rankings, the university ranks 27th in the world and second in Canada.

The university operates and manages many research centers: In 1972, the University of British Columbia and four other universities from Alberta and British Columbia formed a consortium to form the Banfield Marine Science Center. The center is located on Vancouver Island and provides year-round research facilities and technical assistance for biologists, ecologists and oceanographers. The Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Study is an interdisciplinary research institute, mainly engaged in basic research in science, social science and humanities. UBC Farm is a 24 hectare (59 acre) study and agricultural research area located in the southern campus of UBC. It features a Saturday Farmer’s Market from early June to early October, selling organic produce and eggs to the community. The university also has a laboratory specializing in particle and nuclear physics research. The name used to be the acronym for Tri-University Meson Facility, but TRIUMF is now owned and operated by a consortium of 11 Canadian universities. The consortium operates TRIUMF through funding from the Canadian National Research Council and provides TRIUMF facilities to Canadian scientists and scientists around the world. After the legalization of cannabis in Canada, the British Columbia Center for Substance Use (BCCSU) and UBC established a professorship in cannabis science in 2018.In 2017, UBC and Huawei signed a $3 million research agreement on big data and fuel cell technology.

Academic Research Ranking

The University of British Columbia ranks among the best in post-secondary education rankings. In the 2019 Academic Ranking of World Universities, the university is ranked 35th in the world and second in Canada. The 2020 QS World University Rankings put the university ranked 51st in the world and third in Canada. The 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks the university 34th in the world and second in Canada. In the 2020 "U.S. News and World Report" best global university rankings, the university is ranked 30th in the world and second in Canada. The Canadian-based Macleans University Magazine ranked the University of British Columbia third in the 2020 Canadian Medical University Reputation Rankings. Since 2006, although the university has opted out of Macleans College’s graduate survey along with several other universities in Canada, the university’s ranking remains high. In Newsweek's 2011 global university rankings, the university ranked eighth among institutions outside the United States and second in Canada. In addition to academic and research-based rankings, the university also ranks through publications that assess the employment prospects of its graduates. In the 2018 Global Employability Ranking of The Times Higher Education, the university is ranked 56th in the world and fourth in Canada. In QS's 2019 graduate employability rankings, the university ranks 38th in the world and third in Canada.

McGill University


McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1821 by royal charter granted by King George IV, the university bears the name of James McGill, a Scottish merchant whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, University of McGill College (or simply, McGill College); the name was officially changed to McGill University in 1885.

McGill's main campus is on the slope of Mount Royal in downtown Montreal, with a second campus situated in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, also on Montreal Island, 30 kilometers (19 mi) west of the main campus. The university is one of two universities outside the United States which are members of the Association of American Universities, alongside the University of Toronto, and it is the only Canadian member of the Global University Leaders Forum (GULF) within the World Economic Forum.

McGill offers degrees and diplomas in over 300 fields of study, with the highest average admission requirements of any Canadian university. Most students are enrolled in the five largest faculties, namely Arts, Science, Medicine, Engineering, and Management. With 30% of students coming to McGill from over 150 countries, its student body is the most internationally diverse of any medical-doctoral research university in the country. In all major rankings, McGill consistently ranks in the top 50 universities in the world and among the top 3 universities in Canada. It has held the top position for the past 15 years in the annual Maclean's Canadian University Rankings for medical-doctoral universities.

McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as 10 billionaires, the current prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the current Governor General of Canada, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors and more than 100 members of national legislatures. McGill alumni also include nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, at least 16 Emmy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, and 121 Olympians with over 35 Olympic medals. The inventors of the game of basketball, modern organized ice hockey, and the pioneers of gridiron football, as well as the founders of several major universities and colleges are also graduates of the university.

Research has always played a critical role at McGill. Ernest Rutherford discovered the atomic nucleus and conducted his Nobel Prize-winning research on the nature of radioactivity while working as Professor of Experimental Physics at the university. Other notable inventions by McGill researchers or alumni include the world's first artificial cell,  web search engine, and charge-couple device, among others.

McGill has the largest endowment per student in Canada. In 2019, it was the recipient of the largest single philanthropic gift in Canadian history, a $200 million donation to fund the creation of the McCall MacBain Scholarships programme.


The Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning (RIAL) was created in 1801 under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada (41 George III Chapter 17), An Act for the establishment of Free Schools and the Advancement of Learning in this Province.

In 1816 the RIAL was authorized to operate two new Royal Grammar Schools, in Quebec City and in Montreal. This was a turning point for public education in Lower Canada as the schools were created by legislation, the District Public Schools Act of 1807, which showed the government's willingness to support the costs of education and even the salary of a schoolmaster. This was an important first step in the creation of nondenominational schools. When James McGill died in 1813 his bequest was administered by the RIAL.

Of the original two Royal Grammar Schools, in 1846 one closed and the other merged with the High School of Montreal. By the mid-19th century the RIAL had lost control of the other eighty-two grammar schools it had administered. However, in 1853 it took over the High School of Montreal from the school's board of directors and continued to operate it until 1870. Thereafter, its sole remaining purpose was to administer the McGill bequest on behalf of the private college. The RIAL continues to exist today; it is the corporate identity that runs the university and its various constituent bodies, including the former Macdonald College (now Macdonald Campus), the Montreal Neurological Institute, and the Royal Victoria College (the former women's college turned residence). Since the revised Royal Charter of 1852, The Trustees of the RIAL are the Board of Governors of McGill University.


James McGill, the original benefactor of McGill University

James McGill, born in Glasgow, Scotland on 6 October 1744, was a successful merchant and slave owner in Quebec, having matriculated into the University of Glasgow in 1756. Soon afterwards, McGill left for North America to explore the business opportunities there. Between 1811 and 1813,he drew up a will leaving his "Burnside estate", a 19-hectare (47-acre) tract of rural land and 10,000 pounds to the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning.

On McGill's death in December 1813, the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, established in 1801 by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada,  added the establishing of a University pursuant to the conditions of McGill's will to its original function of administering elementary education in Lower Canada.

As a condition of the bequest, the land and funds had to be used for the establishment of a "University or College, for the purposes of Education and the Advancement of Learning in the said Province." The will specified a private, constituent college bearing his name would have to be established within 10 years of his death; otherwise the bequest would revert to the heirs of his wife.

On March 31, 1821, after protracted legal battles with the Desrivières family (the heirs of his wife), McGill College received a royal charter from King George IV. The Charter provided the College should be deemed and taken as a University, with the power of conferring degrees. The third Anglican Bishop of Quebec, The Right Reverend George Mountain was appointed the first principal of McGill College and a professor of divinity. He is also responsible for the creation of Bishop's University in 1843 and Bishop's College School in 1836 in the Eastern Townships.

University development


The Arts Building, completed in 1843 and designed by John Ostell, is the oldest building on campus


Although McGill College received its Royal Charter in 1821, it was inactive until 1829 when the Montreal Medical Institution, which had been founded in 1823, became the college's first academic unit and Canada's first medical school. The Faculty of Medicine granted its first degree, a Doctorate of Medicine and Surgery, in 1833; this was also the first medical degree to be awarded in Canada.

The Faculty of Medicine remained the school's only functioning faculty until 1843, when the Faculty of Arts commenced teaching in the newly constructed Arts Building and East Wing (Dawson Hall). The university also historically has strong links with the Canadian Grenadier Guards, a military regiment in which James McGill served as Lieutenant-Colonel. This title is marked upon the stone that stands before the Arts building, from where the Guards step off annually to commemorate Remembrance Day.

The Faculty of Law was founded in 1848 and is also the oldest of its kind in the nation. In 1896, the McGill School of Architecture was the second architecture school to be established in Canada, six years after the University of Toronto in 1890.

Sir John William Dawson, McGill's principal from 1855 to 1893, is often credited with transforming the school into a modern university. He recruited the aid of Montreal's wealthiest citizens (eighty percent of Canada's wealth was then controlled by families who lived within the Golden Square Mile area that surrounded the university), many of whom donated property and funding needed to construct the campus buildings. Their names adorn many of the campus's prominent buildings.

William Spier designed the addition of West Wing of the Arts Building for William Molson, 1861. Alexander Francis Dunlop designed major alterations to the East Wing of McGill College (now called the Arts Building, McGill University) for Prof. Bovey and the Science Dept., 1888. This expansion of the campus continued until 1920. Buildings designed by Andrew Taylor include the Redpath Museum (1880), Macdonald Physics Building (1893), the Redpath Library (1893), the Macdonald Chemistry Building (1896)—now known as the Macdonald-Harrington Building, the Macdonald Engineering Building (1907)—now known as the Macdonald-Stewart Library Building, and the Strathcona Medical Building (1907)—since renamed the Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building.

In 1899, the university established the McLennan Travelling Library - through this project boxes of about thirty varied books were shipped all over Canada to places without libraries. The books were passed from home to home until most people had read all they had wanted to, then they were shipped back, to be replaced by a new selection.

McGill University Waltz composed by Frances C. Robinson, was published in Montréal by W.H. Scroggie, c 1904.

Initially the institution was called McGill College or University of McGill College but in 1885, the university's Board of Governors formally adopted the use of the name ‘McGill University’. In 1905, the university acquired a second campus when Sir William C. Macdonald, one of the university's major benefactors, endowed a college in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, 32 kilometers (20 mi) west of Montreal. Macdonald College, now known as the Macdonald Campus, opened to students in 1907, originally offering programs in agriculture, household science, and teaching.

George Allan Ross designed the Pathology Building, 1922–23; the Neurological Institute, 1933; Neurological Institute addition 1938 at McGill University. Jean Julien Perrault (architect) designed the McTavish Street residence for Charles E. Gravel, which is now called David Thompson House (1934).


McGill University and Mount Royal, 1906, Panoramic Photo Company


Women's education

Women's education at McGill began in 1884, when Donald Smith (later the Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal), began funding separate lectures for women, given by university staff members. The first degrees granted to women at McGill were conferred in 1888. In 1899, the Royal Victoria College (RVC) opened as a residential college for women at McGill with Hilda D. Oakeley as the head. Until the 1970s, all female undergraduate students, known as "Donaldas," were considered to be members of RVC.  Beginning in the autumn of 2010, the newer Tower section of Royal Victoria College is a co-ed dormitory, whereas the older West Wing remains strictly for women. Both the Tower and the West Wing of Royal Victoria College form part of the university's residence system.

McGill in the Great War


The Second University Company prior to their departure for France


McGill University played a significant role in The Great War. Many students and alumni enlisted in the first wave of patriotic fervor that swept the nation in 1914, but in the spring of 1915—after the first wave of heavy Canadian casualties at Ypres—Hamilton Gault, the founder of the Canadian regiment and a wealthy Montreal businessman, was faced with a desperate shortage of troops. When he reached out to his friends at home for support, over two hundred were commissioned from the ranks, and many more would serve as soldiers throughout the war. On their return to Canada after the war, Major George McDonald and Major George Currie formed the accounting firm McDonald Currie, which later became one of the founders of Price Waterhouse Coopers. Captain Percival Molson was killed in action in July 1917. Percival Molson Memorial Stadium at McGill is named in his honour.

The War Memorial Hall (more generally known as Memorial Hall) is a landmark building on the campus of McGill University. At the dedication ceremony the Governor General of Canada (Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis) laid the cornerstone. Dedicated on October 6, 1946, the Memorial Hall and adjoining Memorial Pool honour students who had enlisted and died in the First World War, and in the Second World War. In Memorial Hall, there are two Stained Glass Regimental badge World War I and World War II Memorial Windows by Charles William Kelsey c. 1950/1.

A war memorial window (1950) by Charles William Kelsey in the McGill War Memorial Hall depicts the figure of St. Michael and the badges of the Navy, Army and the Air Force. A Great War memorial window featuring Saint George and a slain dragon at the entrance to the Blackader-Lauterman Library of Architecture and Art is dedicated to the memory of 23 members of the McGill chapter of Delta Upsilon who gave their lives in the Great War. Six other windows (1951) by Charles William Kelsey on the west wall of the memorial hall depict the coats of arms of the regiments in which the McGill alumni were members.

There is a memorial archway at Macdonald College, two additional floors added to the existing Sir Arthur Currie gymnasium, a hockey rink and funding for an annual Memorial Assembly. A Book of Remembrance on a marble table contains the names of those lost in both World Wars. On 11 November 2012 the McGill Remembers web site launched; the University War Records Office collected documents between 1940 and 1946 related to McGill students, staff and faculty in the Second World War.

Founder of universities and colleges

McGill was instrumental in founding several major universities and colleges. It established the first post-secondary institutions in British Columbia to provide degree programs to the growing cities of Vancouver and Victoria. It chartered Victoria College in 1903 as an affiliated junior college of McGill, offering first and second-year courses in arts and science, until it became today's University of Victoria. British Columbia's first university was incorporated in Vancouver in 1908 as the McGill University College of British Columbia. The private institution granted McGill degrees until it became the independent University of British Columbia in 1915.

Dawson College began in 1945 as a satellite campus of McGill to absorb the anticipated influx of students after World War II. Many students in their first 3 years in the Faculty of Engineering took courses at Dawson College to relieve the McGill campus for the later two years for their degree course. Dawson eventually became independent of McGill and evolved into the first English CEGEP in Quebec. Another CEGEP, John Abbott College, was established in 1971 at the campus of McGill's Macdonald College.

Both founders of the University of Alberta, Premier Alexander Cameron Rutherford of Alberta and Henry Marshall Tory, were also McGill alumni. In addition, McGill alumni and professors, Sir William Osler and Howard Atwood Kelly, were among the four founders and early faculty members of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Osler eventually became the first Physician-in-Chief of the new Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, US in 1889. He led the creation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1893. Other McGill alumni founded the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry in the 1880s.

Downtown campus


Lower campus at sunset


McGill's main campus is situated in downtown Montreal at the foot of Mount Royal. Most of its buildings are in a park-like campus (also known as the Lower Campus) north of Sherbrooke Street and south of Pine Avenue between Peel and Aylmer streets. The campus also extends west of Peel Street (also known as Upper Campus) for several blocks, starting north of Doctor Penfield; the campus also extends east of University Street, starting north of Pine Avenue, an area that includes McGill's Percival Molson Memorial Stadium and the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital. The community immediately east of University Street and south of Pine Avenue is known as Milton-Park, where a large number of students reside. The campus is near the Peel and McGill Metro stations. A major downtown boulevard, McGill College Avenue, leads up to the Roddick Gates, the university's formal main entrance. Many of the major university buildings were constructed using local grey limestone, which serves as a unifying element.

The university's first classes were held in at Burnside Place, James McGill's country home. Burnside Place remained the sole educational facility until the 1840s, when the school began construction on its first buildings: the central and east wings of the Arts Building. The rest of the campus was essentially a cow pasture, a situation similar to the few other Canadian universities and early American colleges of the age.

The university's athletic facilities, including Molson Stadium, are on Mount Royal, near the residence halls and the Montreal Neurological Institute. The Gymnasium is named in honor of General Sir Arthur William Currie.

In 2012, Travel + Leisure rated McGill's campus as one of the 17 most beautiful university campuses in the world.


McGill's residence system houses approximately 3,100 undergraduate students and some graduate students. With the exception of students returning as "floor fellows" or "dons", few McGill students live in residence (known colloquially as "rez") after their first year of undergraduate study, even if they are not from the Montreal area. Most second-year students transition to off-campus apartment housing. Many students settle in the Milton-Park neighborhood, sometimes called the "McGill Ghetto", which is the neighbourhood directly to the east of the downtown campus. In recent years, students have begun moving out to other areas such as Mile End, The Plateau, and even as far as Verdun because of rising rent prices.


A hockey game on campus in 1884, just seven years after McGill students wrote the then-new game's first rule book, with the Arts Building, Redpath Museum, and Morrice Hall (then the Presbyterian College) visible


McGill has 3 kinds of residences for the undergraduate students; the first are the typical dormitory style residences with common washrooms. These consists of the Upper Residences (McConnel, Gardner and Molson Halls), Douglas, University hall and Royal Victoria College. The second type is the hotel style residence. This includes New residence hall, La Citadelle and Carrefour Sherbrooke. The rooms in these residence include both single and double bed rooms with private washrooms. The third and the last is the apartment style residences which includes Solin Hall. Many first-year students live in the Bishop Mountain Residences ("Upper Rez"), a series of concrete dormitories on the slope of Mount Royal, consisting of McConnell Hall, Molson Hall, Gardner Hall, and Douglas Hall. McGill's largest residence is New Residence Hall ("New Rez"), a converted four-star hotel a few blocks east of campus at Park Avenue and Prince Arthur. It houses approximately 700 students each year. Solin Hall, near Lionel-Groulx station, is McGill's second largest residence, housing roughly 300 students. Carrefour Sherbrooke Residence Hall was opened in 2009 on 475 Sherbrooke Street West, previously the Four Points Sheraton Hotel. In 2012, McGill opened La Citadelle, a converted hotel residence housing 286 students on Sherbrooke Street West at the corner of Hutchinson.

Royal Victoria College, once a women-only dormitory, became co-ed in September 2010. The college's original building was designed by Bruce Price and its extension was designed by Percy Erskine Nobbs and George Taylor Hyde. Erected in front of the Royal Victoria College is a statue of Queen Victoria by her daughter Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll.


Solin Hall, situated in Saint-Henri near Lionel-Groulx station, serves as an off-campus apartment style dorm.


Among the McGill Off-Campus Residence Experience buildings are Presbyterian Hall ("Pres Rez"), adjacent to the Presbyterian College, and University Hall (also known as "Dio"), adjacent to the Montreal Diocesan Theological College. Greenbriar Hall houses 89 students. Other buildings included in the McGill Off-Campus Residence Experience are on Peel Street, University Street, and Pine Avenue, however, the university has begun to sell off buildings and only University Hall and some Pine Avenue houses are left.

Macdonald campus

A second campus, the Macdonald Campus, in Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue houses the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Science, the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, the Institute of Parasitology, and the McGill School of Environment. The Morgan Arboretum and the J. S. Marshall Radar Observatory are nearby.

The Morgan Arboretum was created in 1945. It is a 2.5-square-kilometre (0.965 sq mi) forested reserve with the aim of 'teaching, research, and public education'. Its mandated research goals are to continue research related to maintaining the health of the Arboretum plantations and woodlands, to develop new programs related to selecting species adapted to developing environmental conditions and to develop silvicultural practices that preserve and enhance biological diversity in both natural stands and plantations.

Outaouais campus

In 2019, McGill announced the construction of a new campus for its Faculty of Medicine in Gatineau, Quebec, which will allow students from the Outaouais region to complete their undergraduate medical education locally and in French. Medical students are expected to begin using the new facility in August 2020. Official communication with politicians has been ongoing since 2016. The new facility will be erected above the emergency room at the Gatineau Hospital, part of the Centre intégré de santé et de services sociaux (CISSS) de l'Outaouais, in addition to new offices for the associated Family Medicine Unit for residency training. Although the preparatory year for students entering the undergraduate medical education program from CEGEP was initially planned to be offered solely at the McGill downtown campus in Montreal, collaboration with the Université du Québec en Outaouais made it possible to offer the program entirely in Gatineau.

McGill University Health Centre redevelopment plan

In 2006, the Quebec government initiated a $1.6 billion LEED redevelopment project for the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC). The project will expand facilities to two separate campuses and consolidate the various hospitals of the MUHC on the site of an old CP rail yard adjacent to the Vendôme Metro station. This site, known as Glen Yards, comprises 170,000 square metres (1,800,000 sq ft) and spans portions of Montreal's Notre-Dame-de-Grâce neighbourhood and the city of Westmount.

The Glen Yards project has been controversial due to local opposition to the project, environmental issues, and the cost of the project itself.  The project, which has received approval from the provincial government, was, in 2003, expected to be complete by 2010. The new 'campus' has now been completed, and a massive effort of moving units from older hospitals, such Royal Victoria, Montreal Children's, and Montreal General, into the new McGill University Health Centre is underway.


In 2007, McGill premiered its Office of Sustainability and added a second full-time position in this area, the Director of Sustainability in addition to the Sustainability Officer.  Recent efforts in implementing its sustainable development plan include the new Life Sciences Centre which was built with LEED-Silver certification and a green roof, as well as an increase in parking rates in January 2008 to fund other sustainability projects.  Other student projects include The Flat: Bike Collective, which promotes alternative transportation, and the Farmer's Market, which occurs during the fall harvest.  The Farmer's Market and many other initiatives came out of student collaboration during the Rethink Conference 2008.

Other facilities

McGill's Bellairs Research Institute, in Saint James, Barbados is Canada's only teaching and research facility in the tropics.  The institute has been in use for over 50 years. The University also operates the McGill Arctic Research Station on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut, and a Subarctic Research Station in Schefferville, Quebec.

The laboratories of the Huntsman Marine Science Centre are in St. Andrews, N.B., on 300,000 square metres (3,200,000 sq ft) of land at the estuary of the St. Croix River.  It hosts the Atlantic Reference Centre, which is known throughout the Maritimes for its extensive marine biology collections.  The HMS is a research facility "committed to the advancement of the marine sciences through basic and applied research" and acts as a field facility for research and teaching by McGill and other member Universities.


Parc Rutherford at night. The Genome Building (left), Wong Building (middle), and McTavish Reservoir (right) are seen in the background.


McGill's Gault Nature Reserve spans over 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) of forest land, the largest remaining remnant of the primeval forests of the St. Lawrence River Valley. The first scientific studies at the site occurred in 1859. The site has been the site of extensive research activities: "Today there are over 400 scientific articles, 100 graduate theses, more than 50 government reports and about 30 book chapters based on research at Mont St. Hilaire."

In addition to the McGill University Health Centre, McGill has been directly partnered with many teaching hospitals for decades, and also has a history of collaborating with many hospitals in Montreal. These cooperations allow the university to graduate over 1,000 students in health care each year. McGill's contract-affiliated teaching hospitals include the Montreal Children's Hospital, the Montreal General Hospital, the Montreal Neurological Hospital, the Montreal Chest Institute and the Royal Victoria Hospital which are all now part of the McGill University Health Centre. Other hospitals health care students may use include the Jewish General Hospital, the Douglas Hospital, St. Mary's Hospital Centre, Lachine Hospital, LaSalle Hospital, Lakeshore General Hospital, as well as health care facilities part of the Centre intégré de santé et services sociaux de l'Outaouais.

Until the late 19th century, McGill had also owned parkland atop the Westmount Summit, which was used as a botanical garden. In the early twentieth century, McGill donated the land to the City of Westmount on the condition it become a bird sanctuary.

In 1998, the Faculty of Management launched their MBA Japan program, the first Canadian degree program offered in Japan, with teaching facilities at Nishi-Shinjuku, Tokyo.

Rankings and reputation

McGill has placed in the rankings of several national and international publications. In Maclean's Canadian university Rankings 2020, McGill was ranked first in Canada among medical-doctoral universities. The university has held the top position in the ranking for 15 consecutive years.

Internationally, McGill ranked 31st in the world and 2nd in Canada in the 2021 QS World University Rankings. It also ranked 27th in the world and 2nd in Canada in the 2020-21 CWUR World University Rankings. It was ranked 42nd in the world and 3rd in Canada by the 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings.  In 2019, the Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 90th in world, and joint 3rd in Canada, tied with McMaster University. In the 2020 U.S. News & World Report Best Global University Rankings, McGill was ranked 43rd in the world and 3rd in Canada. In the Global University Employability Ranking 2019, published by Times Higher Education, McGill ranked 17th in the world and 2nd in Canada. Nature ranked McGill 63rd in the world and 2nd in Canada among academic institutions for high-impact research in the 2020 edition of Nature Index.

McGill is a member of the Global University Leaders Forum (GULF),  composed of the presidents of 29 of the world's top universities.  GULF has two major roles, acting as a community to address educational, scientific and research agendas, and as an advisory body providing intellectual stewardship to the World Economic Forum. It is the only Canadian university member of GULF.

The Globe and Mail's Canadian University Report 2019 categorised McGill as "above average" for its financial aid, student experience and research, and as "average" for its library resources.

In the 2018 Times Higher Education/Wall Street Journal Business School Report, McGill's Desautels Faculty of Management's MBA was ranked 1st in Canada and 48th worldwide among two-year MBAs.  The Financial Times, in its 2020 Global MBA ranking, placed the MBA programme 91st in the world and 2nd in Canada.  The Eduniversal Ranking placed the Desautels Faculty of Management of McGill University first in Canada among business schools. In Bloomberg Business Week's Best Business Schools ranking 2019-20, Desautels was ranked 7th in Canada.

According to Wealth-X's 2019 ranking of Ultra-high-net-worth(UHNW) alumni — those with US$30 million or more in net worth — McGill ranked 34th in the world and 8th outside the United States.

Research Infosource ranked McGill 3rd among Canadian universities with medical schools in its 2019 edition of Research Universities of the Year,  with McGill ranking 3rd in its category for research intensity per faculty and for total research income.


Research plays a critical role at McGill. McGill is affiliated with 12 Nobel Laureates and professors have won major teaching prizes. According to the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, "researchers at McGill are affiliated with about 75 major research centres and networks, and are engaged in an extensive array of research partnerships with other universities, government and industry in Quebec and Canada, throughout North America and in dozens of other countries."  In 2016, McGill had over $547 million of sponsored research income, the second highest in Canada,  and a research intensity per faculty of $317,600, the third highest among full-service universities in Canada.  McGill has one of the largest patent portfolios among Canadian universities.  McGill's researchers are supported by the McGill University Library, which comprises 13 branch libraries and holds over six million items.

Since 1926, McGill has been a member of the Association of American Universities (AAU), an organization of leading research universities in North America. McGill is a founding member of Universitas 21, an international network of leading research-intensive universities that work together to expand their global reach and advance their plans for internationalization. McGill is one of 26 members of the prestigious Global University Leaders Forum (GULF), which acts as an intellectual community within the World Economic Forum to advise its leadership on matters relating to higher education and research. It is the only Canadian university member of GULF. McGill is also a member of the U15, a group of prominent research universities within Canada.

McGill-Queen's University Press began as McGill in 1963 and amalgamated with Queen's in 1969. McGill-Queen's University Press focuses on Canadian studies and publishes the Canadian Public Administration Series.

McGill is perhaps best recognized for its research and discoveries in the health sciences. Sir William Osler, Wilder Penfield, Donald Hebb, Brenda Milner, and others made significant discoveries in medicine, neuroscience and psychology while working at McGill, many at the University's Montreal Neurological Institute. The first hormone governing the Immune System (later christened the Cytokine 'Interleukin-2') was discovered at McGill in 1965 by Gordon & McLean.

The invention of the world's first artificial cell was made by Thomas Chang while an undergraduate student at the university.  While chair of physics at McGill, nuclear physicist Ernest Rutherford performed the experiment that led to the discovery of the alpha particle and its function in radioactive decay, which won him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1908.  Alumnus Jack W. Szostak was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in medicine for discovering a key mechanism in the genetic operations of cells, an insight that has inspired new lines of research into cancer.

William Chalmers invented Plexiglas while a graduate student at McGill.  In computing, MUSIC/SP, software for mainframes once popular among universities and colleges around the world, was developed at McGill. A team also contributed to the development of Archie, a  search engine. A 3270 terminal emulator developed at McGill was commercialized and later sold to Hummingbird Software. A team has developed digital musical instruments in the form of prosthesis, called Musical Prostheses.

Libraries, archives and museums


The Falcon, a statue outside of the Humanities and Social Sciences Library, part of the McLennan–Redpath Library Complex


The McGill University Libraries. The McGill University Library includes 13 branches or subject libraries including the Department of Rare Books & Special Collections which holds about 350,000 items, including books, manuscripts, maps, prints, and a general rare book collection. The Osler Library of the History of Medicine is the largest medical history library in Canada and one of the most comprehensive in the world.


Elizabeth Wirth Music Building, also a library, sits adjacent to the old Strathcona Music Building


The McGill University Archives – now administered as part of the McGill Library – houses official records of, or relating to, or people/activities connected with McGill University. The collection consists of manuscripts, texts, photographs, audio-visual material, architectural records, cartographic materials, prints and drawings, microforms and artifacts.  In 1962 F. Cyril James declared that the newly founded McGill University Archives (MUA), while concentrating on the institutional records of McGill, had the mandate to acquire private papers of former faculty members. In the 1990s drew back their acquisition scope and in 2004 new terms of reference on private acquisitions were introduced that included a wider McGill Community.

The Redpath Museum houses collections of interest to ethnology, biology, paleontology, and mineralogy/geology. Built in 1882, the Redpath is the oldest building in Canada built specifically to be a museum.

The McGill Medical Museum catalogues, preserves, conserves and displays collections that documents the study and practice of medicine at McGill University and its associated teaching hospitals. The Medical museum features collections, individual specimens, artifacts, equipment log books/autopsy journals/paper materials and medical instruments and apparati, 25 wax models, 200 mostly skeletal dry specimens; and 400 lantern slides of anatomic specimens. There is a special emphasis on pathology; there are 2000 fluid filled-preserved anatomical and pathological specimens. The Osler collection, for example consists of 60 wet specimens while The Abbott collection consists of 80 wet specimens, mostly examples of congenital cardiac disease.

Notable people

McGill counts among its alumni 12 Nobel laureates and 145 Rhodes Scholars, both the most of any university in Canada, as well as five astronauts, the current prime minister and two former prime ministers of Canada, the current Governor General of Canada, 15 justices of the Canadian Supreme Court, at least eight foreign leaders, 28 foreign ambassadors, over eight dozen members of the Canadian Parliament, United States Congress, British Parliament, and other national legislatures, at least 10 billionaires, nine Academy Award winners, 11 Grammy Award winners, four Pulitzer Prize winners, two Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients, and at least 16 Emmy Award winners. McGill University or its alumni also founded several major universities and colleges, including the University of British Columbia, the University of Victoria, the University of Alberta,  the Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry at the University of Western Ontario, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and Dawson College.

In the arts, McGill students include four Pulitzer Prize winners, Templeton and Berggruen Prize winner Charles Taylor,  essayist and novelist John Ralston Saul, a Companion of the Order of Canada along with Charles Taylor, Juno Award winners Sam Roberts and Donald Steven, singer-songwriter Prita Chhabra and William Shatner, best known for his portrayal of Captain Kirk on Star Trek and winner of several Emmy Awards. Nine Academy Award winners studied at McGill. Poet and singer-songwriter Leonard Cohen majored in English at McGill and graduated in 1955. Composer and six-time Grammy award winner Burt Bacharach studied music at McGill, and Win Butler and Régine Chassagne of the Grammy Award winning group Arcade Fire met while studying at McGill.  In the sciences, students include doctors, inventors, five astronauts (out of 14 total selected in the CSA's history) and scientist Mark J. Poznansky, a member of the Order of Canada. Dating back to 1908, McGill graduates and faculty have received a total of 12 Nobel Prizes in disciplines ranging from Physiology, Medicine, Economics, Chemistry and Physics. Yoshua Bengio a McGill graduate, won the 2018 Turing Award, the most prestigious award given in the field of computing.

Some politicians and government officials both within Canada and abroad are McGill alumni, including three Canadian prime ministers, the incumbent Governor General of Canada, and 14 justices of the Supreme Court of Canada. Julie Payette, current Governor General of Canada, received her Bachelor of Engineering in 1986 before joining the Canadian Space Agency in June 1992. The engineer and 29th Governor General of Canada participated in two space missions, logging more than 25 days in space. Daniel Oduber Quirós earned his degree in philosophy at McGill in 1948 and became president of Costa Rica from 1974 to 1979. Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga completed her PhD at McGill and was elected as president of the Republic of Latvia in 1999, serving until 2007, as the first female president in Eastern Europe after Turkey's Tansu Çiller. Ahmed Nazif also completed a PhD at McGill in 1983 and has served as the youngest prime minister of Egypt since the republic's founding in 1953. Zbigniew Brzezinski, former United States National Security Advisor under President Jimmy Carter completed both his B.A. and M.A. degrees at McGill in 1949 and 1950, respectively. Two United States Presidents, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Bill Clinton, as well as former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill have been bestowed honorary degrees from McGill University. Roosevelt and Churchill received Honorary Doctorates of Law at Citadel Hill in Quebec City, on September 16, 1944, while Bill Clinton accepted his Honorary Doctorate on October 16, 2009.

McGill students are also recognized as athletes, including various members of Canadian national teams and 121 Olympians of varying nationalities who have won over 35 Olympic medals. In 2020, McGill alumnus Laurent Duvernay-Tardif, who first became the first medical school graduate to play in the NFL in 2018, became the first McGill graduate to win a Super Bowl as a member of the Kansas City Chiefs. McGill alumni also include James Naismith, the inventor of basketball, as well as the pioneers of the modern version of organized ice hockey, and the modern game of American football.

Professors at McGill have won 26 Prix du Québec, 14 Prix de l'Association francophone pour le savoir and 21 Killam Prizes. Twelve Nobel Laureates have studied or taught at McGill, among them Otto Hahn, who was awarded the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the nuclear fission of uranium and thorium.

McMaster University

McMaster University (McMaster or Mac) is a public research university in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main McMaster campus is on 121 hectares (300 acres) of land near the residential neighbourhoods of Ainslie Wood and Westdale, adjacent to the Royal Botanical Gardens. It operates six academic faculties: the DeGroote School of Business, Engineering, Health Sciences, Humanities, Social Science, and Science. It is a member of the U15, a group of research-intensive universities in Canada.

The university bears the name of William McMaster, a prominent Canadian senator and banker who bequeathed C$900,000 to its founding. It was incorporated under the terms of an act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1887, merging the Toronto Baptist College with Woodstock College. It opened in Toronto in 1890. Inadequate facilities and the gift of land in Hamilton prompted its relocation in 1930. The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec controlled the university until it became a privately chartered, publicly funded non-denominational institution in 1957.

McMaster University has over 27,000 undergraduate and over 4,000 post-graduate students. Alumni and former students reside across Canada and in 139 countries. Its athletic teams are known as the Marauders, and are members of U Sports. Notable alumni include government officials, academics, business leaders, Rhodes Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, and Nobel laureates.



McMaster University resulted from the outgrowth of educational initiatives undertaken by Baptists as early as the 1830s. It was founded in 1881 as Toronto Baptist College. Canadian Senator William McMaster, the first president of the Canadian Bank of Commerce, bequeathed funds to endow a university, which was incorporated through a merger of Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College, Woodstock, Ontario. In 1887 the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College was granted royal assent, and McMaster University was officially incorporated. Woodstock College, Woodstock, and Moulton Ladies' College, Toronto, were maintained in close connection.

The new university, housed in McMaster Hall in Toronto, was sponsored by the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec as a sectarian undergraduate institution for its clergy and adherents. The first courses—initially limited to arts and theology leading to a BA degree—were taught in 1890, and the first degrees were conferred in 1894.

As the university grew, McMaster Hall started to become overcrowded. The suggestion to move the university to Hamilton was first brought up by a student and Hamilton native in 1909, although the proposal was not seriously considered by the university until two years later. By the 1920s, after previous proposals between various university staff, the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce launched a campaign to bring McMaster University to Hamilton. As the issue of space at McMaster Hall became more acute, the university administration debated the future of the university. The university nearly became federated with the University of Toronto, as had been the case with Trinity College and Victoria College.

Instead, in 1927, the university administration decided to move the university to Hamilton. The Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec secured $1.5 million, while the citizens of Hamilton raised an additional $500,000 to help finance the move. The lands for the university and new buildings were secured through gifts from graduates. Lands were transferred from Royal Botanical Gardens to establish the campus area. The first academic session on the new Hamilton campus began in 1930. McMaster's property in Toronto was sold to the University of Toronto when McMaster moved to Hamilton in 1930. McMaster Hall is now home to the Royal Conservatory of Music.

Professional programs during the interwar period were limited to just theology and nursing. By the 1940s the McMaster administration was under pressure to modernize and expand the university's programs. During the Second World War and post-war periods the demand for technological expertise, particularly in the sciences, increased. This problem placed a strain on the finances of what was still a denominational Baptist institution. In particular, the institution could no longer secure sufficient funds from denominational sources alone to sustain science research. Since denominational institutions could not receive public funds, the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec decided to reorganize the university, creating two federated colleges. The arts and divinity programs were reconstituted as University College and science was reorganized under the newly incorporated Hamilton College as a separate division capable of receiving provincial grants. Hamilton College was incorporated in 1948 by letters patent under The Companies Act, although it remained only affiliated with the university. The university traditionally focused on undergraduate studies, and did not offer a PhD program until 1949.

Through the 1950s increased funding advanced the place of sciences within the institution. In 1950, the university had completed the construction of three academic buildings for the sciences, all designed by local architect William Russell Souter. Public funding was eventually necessary to ensure the humanities and social sciences were given an equal place. Thus, in 1957 the university reorganized once again under The McMaster University Act, 1957, dissolving the two colleges. Its property was vested to McMaster and the university became a nondenominational institution eligible for public funding. The historic Baptist connection was continued through McMaster Divinity College, a separately chartered affiliated college of the university. Also in 1957, PhD programs were consolidated in a new Faculty of Graduate Studies. Construction of the McMaster Nuclear Reactor also began in 1957, and was the first university-based research reactor in the Commonwealth when it began operating in 1959.

In 1965, with the support of the Ontario government, the university established a medical school and teaching hospital, graduating its first class of physicians in 1972. In 1968 the university was reorganized under an amended act of the McMaster Act into the Divisions of Arts, Science, and Health Sciences, each with its own vice-president, while the Divinity College continued under its existing arrangement. In 1974 the divisional structure of the university was dissolved and reorganized again under The McMaster University Act, 1976 and the vice-presidents were replaced by a single Vice-President (Academic). The Faculties of Business, Engineering, Health Sciences, Humanities, Science, and Social Sciences were retained, each under the leadership of a dean.


McMaster University is in the city of Hamilton, Ontario, in the Golden Horseshoe along the western end of Lake Ontario. The main campus is bordered to the north by Cootes Paradise, an extensive natural marshland, to the east and west by residential neighbourhoods, and to its south by Main Street West, a major transportation artery. Its northern boundaries are a popular destination for walkers who use the many trails that connect the campus to Royal Botanical Gardens. While the main campus is 152.4 hectares (377 acres), most of the teaching facilities are within the core 12.1 hectares (30 acres). In addition to its main campus in Hamilton, McMaster owns several other properties around Hamilton as well as in Burlington, Kitchener, and St. Catharines, Ontario.

In 2017 the university owns and manages 58 buildings, both on and off campus. The buildings at McMaster vary in age, with Hamilton Hall opening in 1926, to the university's new Bertrand Russell Archives and Research Centre, which opened 25 June 2018. McMaster main campus is divided into three main areas: the Core Campus, North Campus and West Campus. The Core Campus has most of the university's academic, research and residential buildings, while the North Campus is made up of the university's athletic precinct and a small amount of surface parking. The West Campus is the least developed area of the main campus, containing only a few buildings, surface parking, and undeveloped land. Security at the university is provided by special constables employed by McMaster University Security Service, a department of the university.


Panoramic view of McMaster University's main campus from the southwest, taken on June 2008. This campus has the majority of the university's facilities.


Academic facilities

The university's campus has gone through continuous development since 1928. The main campus's six original buildings are of Collegiate Gothic architecture, designed by William Lyon Somerville, who also laid out the initial campus plan. They are now flanked by over fifty structures built predominantly from the 1940s to 1960s. The largest facility is the McMaster University Medical Centre, a multi-use research hospital that is home to the second-largest neonatal intensive care unit and the third-largest child and youth mental health unit in the country. It is connected to the Life Sciences building and the Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning & Discovery, which houses many well-funded research groups in areas of genetics, infectious diseases, and several specific conditions.

The McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR) has been the largest university reactor in the Commonwealth since it began operation and is the second largest research reactor in North America. It is a "pool-type" reactor with a core of enriched uranium fuel moderated and cooled by distilled water. While the MNR's primary purpose is research and the production of medical isotopes, the MNR serves students in nuclear engineering, medical and health physics, and other applied radiation sciences. The university provides a wide range of irradiation, laboratory, and holding facilities, which include a cyclotron, an accelerator, a small-angle neutron-scattering detector, and wide-angle neutron scattering facilities. The cyclotron is used for the production of fluorine-18, and is used for research purposes, particularly the development of novel molecular imaging agents.

Library and museum

The university's library system is a member of 31 organizations, including the Association of Research Libraries. Around 2.8 million articles were downloaded from the library system's electronic journal collection during the 2016 academic year. The university library employs 138 professional, and support staff. The library's resource expenditure for the 2016–2017 academic year was approximately $11.5 million, with 81 per cent of the budget allocated to serial and e-resource subscriptions, 9 per cent on hard copy acquisitions, and 10 per cent to membership and collections support. The library system include four libraries housing 1,274,265 paper books and 3,689,973 total resources, including videos, maps, sound recordings, and microfilm. Mills Library houses the humanities and social sciences collections, with a wide range of print and digital resources. Innis Library houses content which supports the academic and research interests of the DeGroote School of Business. Thode Library houses academic material of various disciplines of science and engineering, while the Health Science Library houses books pertaining to medical sciences. The William Ready Division of Archives and Research Collections at McMaster University consist of papers of Canadian publishers; British personalities and of Canadian literary figures such as Farley Mowat, Pierre Berton, Matt Cohen, and Marian Engel. It includes the archives of Bertrand Russell, and of labour unions.

The McMaster Museum of Art's (MMA) principal role is to support the academic mission of McMaster University and to contribute to the discourse on art in Canada. The museum has the highest attendance figures for a university-affiliated museum in Canada, with 30,000 visitors in 2016. Established in 1967, the museum houses and exhibits the university's art collection. As of 2015, that collection of 5,971 pieces holds a value of $98.7 million. The collection includes works by Gustave Courbet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Walter Sickert and Vincent van Gogh. The museum also boasts the most comprehensive collection of German expressionist and Weimar period prints in Canada.

Housing and student facilities

As of March 2019, McMaster has twelve smoke-free student residences: Bates, Brandon, Edwards, Hedden, Les Prince, Mary E. Keyes, Matthews, McKay, Moulton, Wallingford, Whidden, and Woodstock Hall. McMaster's student residences can accommodate 3,685 students. The latest residence to be built was Les Prince Hall, a large co-ed building, completed in 2006. It was named for a long-time hall master in the residence system who lived with his family on campus until after his retirement in 1980. In September 2010, 50.19 per cent of first-year students lived on campus, with 15.54 per cent of the overall undergraduate population living on campus. Residences provide traditional room and board style, furnished apartment style, and suite-style accommodation. Brandon Hall houses the university's substance-free lifestyle living spaces. The residence system is supervised by Residence Life staff, who provide guidance and help the transition to university life for many first-year students. Residence students are represented by the Inter-Residence Council (IRC), which aims to build a sense of community among the residents through programming. Additionally, the IRC seeks to advocate for residence students on issues they may face, such as facilities, dining, environment, and more, and provide opportunities for residence students to gain valuable leadership opportunities. They are an integral part of the McMaster residence community.

The McMaster University Student Centre (MUSC) is the center of student life and programming. It has a café, study space, common areas, and several administrative departments, including the CIBC Conference Hall. The MUSC contains the offices of a number of student organizations, including the McMaster Students Union and The Silhouette weekly newspaper as well as other services such as the Campus Health Centre and the campus dentist. The university has over twenty dining outlets throughout the campus, including two major residence dining facilities. The university has several vegetarian establishments, such as a completely vegetarian cafe known as Bridges Café and a farmers market stand. The university was voted as the country's most vegan-friendly university through People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) for a number of years. Several other dining outlets at McMaster have garnered awards throughout the years for food services.

Off-campus facilities

As of 2010 McMaster University's DeGroote School of Business operates a 1.82-hectare (4.5-acre) site in the neighbouring city of Burlington. Consideration for the new building began in 2004, when McMaster University had announced its initial intent to construct a new arts- and technology-intensive campus in partnership with the city of Burlington. In 2009, the City of Burlington, Halton Region, and McMaster University signed an official agreement laying out the timelines and next steps for the university's expansion into Burlington. Construction began on 17 June 2009, and the official opening was on 7 October 2010. The four-story, 8,400-square-metre (90,000 sq ft) building is called the Ron Joyce Centre. The Ron Joyce Centre is home to DeGroote's MBA program and its business management program (both degree and non-degree programs).

McMaster has several administrative offices at its Downtown Centre. The McMaster Centre for Continuing Education, which offers certificate and diploma programs as well as personal and professional development programs, is within the former Bank of Montreal Pavilion at Lloyd D. Jackson Square. McMaster had also announced construction of the McMaster Downtown Health Campus in downtown Hamilton had begun in December 2012. The Health Campus is expected to provide teaching spaces, exam rooms and clinical spaces for local residents.

The Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine is on the main campus as well as in two regional campuses at St. Catharines and Kitchener. The Waterloo Regional Campus is in downtown Kitchener, where it shares facilities with the Health Sciences Campus of the University of Waterloo. The campus in St. Catharines is at Brock University's Niagara Health and Bioscience Research Complex. Approximately 30 medical students in each year of the program attend each campus. Those who apply to McMaster's School of Medicine are asked to rank their site choice (Hamilton, Niagara Region, Waterloo Region) from first to third, or no preference. Offers of admission to the medical school are made from a rank list irrespective of geographical preference. Subsequent to an applicant's acceptance, registrants to the class are placed based on their preference and geographical background. The offers given out by McMaster are bound to the assigned site.

McMaster purchased a large industrial park three kilometres east of its main Hamilton campus in 2005 with the intention of creating an array of research facilities for the development of advanced manufacturing and materials, biotechnology, automotive, and nanotechnology. In July 2005 the federal government announced it would relocate CANMET, a federal government materials research laboratory, from its Ottawa centre to Hamilton. This decision helped spearhead the development of the McMaster Innovation Park. The United Nations University-International Network on Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) is headquartered within the park. UNU-INWEH is the only United Nations agency headquartered in Ontario and the only North American host site for a United Nations University, after moving to McMaster Innovation Park on 23 April 2008.


The Office of Sustainability, created as the All-modes Commuting & Transportation Office in 2002, is charged with promoting sustainable operations and growth at the university. The Office of Sustainability, headed by the Manager of University Sustainability, works with various members of the university population, external community groups, and the government. Along with the other members of the Council of Ontario Universities, McMaster signed a pledge in 2009 known as Ontario Universities Committed to a Greener World, with the objective of transforming its campus into a model of environmental responsibility. On 21 October 2010, the university signed two accords addressing the issue of climate change: the Talloires Declaration and the University and College Presidents’ Climate Change Statement of Action for Canada.

The university campus received a B grade from the Sustainable Endowments Institute on its College Sustainability Report Card for 2011.


The governance of the university is conducted through the board of governors and the senate, both of which were established in the Act to unite Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College in 1887. The board is responsible for the university's conduct, management, and control of the university and of its property, revenues, business, and affairs. Ex officio governors of the Board include the university's chancellor, president, and the chairman of the board-senate committee on long-range planning. The Board also consists of 34 other governors, either appointed or elected by the various members of the university's community, including elected representatives from the student body. While The McMaster University Act, 1976 outlines that the board be only composed of 37 members, the Board also includes 12 honorary members, bringing the total number of governors to 51.

The senate is responsible for the university's academics, including standards for admission into the university and qualifications for degrees, diplomas, and certificates. The senate consists of 15 ex officio positions granted to the chancellor, the president, the vice-presidents of the university, the senior dean of each faculty, the dean of graduate studies, the dean of adult education, the principal of McMaster Divinity College, and the chairman of the Undergraduate Council. The senate also consists of 51 other members, appointed or elected by the various communities of the university, including elected representatives of the student body. Meetings of the board of governors and the senate are open to the public.

The president acts as the chief executive officer of the university under the authority of the board and the senate, and supervises and directs the academic and administrative work of the university and of its teaching and non-teaching staff. The office was created in 1949, with George Gilmour serving as the university's first president. The office of the vice-chancellor, created at the same time as the office of president, has always been held by the incumbent president of the university. The university president, David H. Farrar, has served the post on an interim basis since 1 July 2019, although his tenure as the official university president did not begin until the following year.

Affiliated institution

McMaster University is affiliated with one post-secondary institution, McMaster Divinity College. The seminary is within the campus of the university. As an affiliated institution, two members of the Divinity College sit on the university's senate, as well as appoint one representative to sit in the university's board of governors. However, the Divinity College operates with its own senate and board of trustees. Although Divinity College has the authority to confer their own degrees, students taking the College's Master of Divinity and Master of Theological Studies are awarded degrees by McMaster University. Students of Divinity College have access to the catalogue of McMaster University Library, while students of the university similarly have access to the Canadian Baptist Archives, managed by the university's library system.

The university and the divinity college were incorporated as the same institution in 1887, a result of a merger between two Baptist institutions, the Canadian Literary Institute in Woodstock, Ontario, and Toronto Baptist College. McMaster University continued to operate as a Baptist-run institution until 1957, when provincial legislation allowed for the governance of the university to pass from the Baptist Convention of Ontario and Quebec, to a privately chartered, publicly funded arrangement. McMaster's Faculty of Theology was spun-off into McMaster Divinity College, a separately-chartered affiliated college of the university.

From 1911 to 1938, Brandon College (reincorporated as Brandon University in 1967) was an affiliated institution of McMaster. Located in Brandon, Manitoba, the affiliated institution was funded by the Baptist Union of Western Canada. The college ended its affiliation with McMaster in 1938, after Brandon College became a non-denominational institution.


McMaster is a publicly funded research university, and a member of the Universities Canada. McMaster functions on a semester system, operating year-round on academic semesters, fall/winter and spring/summer. In the 2016–2017 academic year, the university had an enrolment of 31,265 students; 26,780 undergraduate students, 4,485 graduate students. Programs, departments, and schools at McMaster are divided among six faculties, the DeGroote School of Business, the Faculty of Health Sciences, the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Engineering, the Faculty of Science, and the Faculty of Social Sciences.

By enrolment, McMaster's largest faculty in September 2016 was the Faculty of Science, with 7,004 full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. The Faculty of Humanities was the smallest faculty by enrolment, with 2,729 full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate students. The Faculty of Health Sciences holds the highest graduate enrolment, with 1,144 graduate students. A number of university students are enrolled in interdisciplinary programs, administered by two or more faculties, including 549 graduate students. At the undergraduate level, the Arts and Science program is taught jointly by the six faculties at McMaster. Created in 1981, the program aims to provide a broad-based, liberal education, providing substantial work in both the arts and sciences. In September 2016, 278 undergraduate students were enrolled in the Arts and Science program.

The university also jointly administers several undergraduate collaborative programs with Mohawk College, of which 2,697 students are enrolled in. The university also awards degrees to graduate students of McMaster Divinity College. The Divinity College was originally the university's Faculty of Theology, before it was reorganized into a separately chartered, affiliated college of the university in 1957.

Students may apply for financial aid such as the Ontario Student Assistance Program and Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. The financial aid provided may come in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships, fellowships, debt reduction, interest relief, and work programs. In the 2016–2017 academic year, McMaster students received approximately C$100,972,910 in Ontario Student Assistance Program loans and C$40,061,756 in grants, approximately $140,981,009 in total. In the same year students received C$10,135,233.65 in bursaries.

The university international student exchange agreements with over 70 universities outside Canada, enabling its students to earn credits while studying abroad.

McMaster Model

The McMaster Model is the university's policy for a student-centred, problem-based, interdisciplinary approach to learning, a policy which has been adopted by several other universities around the world. During the 1960s the McMaster University Medical School pioneered problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials that have since been adopted by other programs and faculties within the university. PBL is now used in medicine, occupational therapy, physical therapy, nursing, midwifery, and other allied fields. Most medical schools in Canada and more than 80 per cent of medical schools in the United States employ PBL in their curriculum, and many international universities do the same.

In 1991, McMaster's School of Medicine adopted progress testing, developing the personal progress index (PPI), a system based on progress testing invented concurrently by the University of Missouri-Kansas City's medical school and the Maastricht University. The PPI is used as an objective method for assessing acquisition and retention of knowledge for students in the medical program. The PPI is administered at regular intervals to all students in the program, regardless of their level of training, and plots students' scores as they move through the program. Students typically score 20 per cent on their first examination, and increase by five to seven per cent with each successive examination. Students can monitor the changes in their scores and receive formative feedback based on a standardized score relative to the class mean. Due to the overwhelming success and research supporting the use of the PPI as an evaluation tool, it is now used in Canada, US, Europe, and Australia.


McMaster University has placed in post-secondary school rankings. In the 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities rankings, the university ranked 98th in the world and fourth in Canada. The 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed McMaster 72nd in the world, and fourth in Canada The 2021 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 144th in the world and sixth in Canada. In U.S. News & World Report 2020 global university rankings, the university placed 126th, and fourth in Canada. In 2011, Newsweek had also ranked McMaster as the 15th top university outside of the United States, and the fourth best university in Canada. In Maclean's 2020 rankings, McMaster placed fourth in both their Medical-Doctoral university category, and in their reputation ranking for Canadian universities. McMaster was ranked in spite of having opted out from participation in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006.

McMaster also placed in a number of rankings that evaluated the employment prospects of graduates. In QS's 2019 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 93rd in the world, and fifth in Canada. In the Times Higher Education's 2018 global employability ranking, McMaster placed 78th in the world, and fifth in Canada. In an employability survey published by the New York Times in October 2011, when CEOs and chairmen were asked to select the top universities which they recruited from, McMaster placed 61st in the world, and fourth in Canada.


In 2018, Research Infosource named McMaster as the most research intensive university in the country with an average sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of C$434,700 per faculty member in 2017, the highest average in the country, and nearly double the average for universities in the "Medical-Doctoral" category. In the same year, graduate students averaged a sponsored research income of $82,800, the highest out of any full-service university. With a sponsored research income of $379.959 million in 2017, McMaster has the seventh largest sponsored research income amongst Canadian universities. In the 2015–2016 academic year, the federal government was the largest source of McMaster's sponsored research income (excluding affiliated hospitals), providing 61.4 per cent of McMaster's research budget, primarily through grants. Corporate research income account for 7.3 per cent of the overall research budget.

McMaster has been ranked on several bibliometric university rankings, which uses citation analysis to evaluate the impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked McMaster 119th in the world, and sixth in Canada. The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2018–19 rankings placed the university 126th in the world, and sixth in Canada. The university is home to several research institutes including the Origins Institute. The Faculty of Health Sciences operates several research institutes, including the Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, and the Population Health Research Institute.


Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning and Discovery is a multipurpose building that houses several research facilities of the Faculty of Health Sciences


McMaster has received accolades for its research strengths, particularly in the field of health sciences. The Faculty of Health Science oversees $130 million a year in research, much of it conducted by scientists and physicians who teach in the medical school. The university also operates a brain bank, whose collection includes a portion of Albert Einstein's brain, preserved and held for medical research. Researchers there have identified differences in his brain that may relate to his genius for spatial and mathematical thinking. In addition to traditional forms of research, members of Faculty of Health Sciences have also been credited with developments within the medical practice. A McMaster research group led by David Sackett and later Gordon Guyatt had been credited for establishing the methodologies used in evidence-based medicine.

The university's other faculties also operate several research facilities. The Biology Greenhouse holds 217 plants in a 780-square-metre (8,400 sq ft) facility, and is used as a teaching and research facility by the Department of Biology. In addition to maintaining its permanent collection, the Biology Greenhouse also grows plants for both short term research studies.

The Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research (BIMR) was created in 1960 by Howard Petch, the institute was named after McMaster alumnus Bertram Brockhouse. The BIMR is an interdisciplinary research organization with the mandate to develop, support, and co-ordinate all materials research related activities at McMaster. Its membership of 123 faculty members is drawn from 13 departments in the Faculties of Science, Engineering, and Health Sciences, as well as several Canadian and international universities. Facilities of the BIMR include the Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy, Centre for Crystal Growth, McMaster Analytical Xray Facility, Electronic and Magnetic Characterization Facility, and the Photonics Research Laboratories. The Canadian Centre for Electron Microscopy is home to the world's most powerful electron microscope; the Titan 80–300 cubed microscope has a magnification of 14 million and is used for material, medical, and nanotechnology research

In addition, the university also operates the McMaster Nuclear Reactor, used for nuclear science and engineering research since 1959. The university regularly acquires an operating license for the reactor from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, with the latest 10-year license issued on 1 July 2014. The pool-type reactor is used for research, educational, and commercial applications such as neutron radiography, and medical radioisotope production; including 60 per cent of the world's supply of iodine-125, an isotope used in nuclear medicine to treat prostate cancer. The production of molybdenum-99 has occasionally been moved to the university's reactor, when production at the National Research Universal reactor was temporarily halted.

The strength of nuclear science at McMaster was augmented in 1968 under the presidency of Dr. H.G. Thode by the construction of a 10MV Model FN Tandem particle accelerator. The 3MV Model KN single-ended accelerator was added the same year. The academic direction of the laboratory fell to the Physics Department in the early days, as it was primarily a nuclear structure laboratory. During the next 28 years, the nuclear research effort was extensive, with hundreds of graduate students trained and many publications generated.


The requirements for admission differ between students from Ontario, other provinces in Canada, and international students due to the lack of uniformity in marking schemes. The acceptance rate at McMaster for full-time, first-year applications in 2018 was 52.6 per cent. In September 2014, the secondary school average for full-time first-year students at McMaster University was 87.7 per cent. The university received 28,079 applicants in 2016.

However, students entering McMaster's more selective undergraduate programs, including the Health Sciences, Integrated Sciences, and Arts and Science programs, had a secondary school average of 96.3 per cent. In 2016, Yahoo! Finance named the university's Health Sciences program the toughest Canadian undergraduate program to gain admission to, with an acceptance rate of 4.5 per cent out of an average of 3,500 applicants each year.

The Michael DeGroote School of Medicine has notably developed admission tests adopted by other schools. In 2001, they developed the multiple-mini interview to address long-standing concerns over standard panel interviews; viewed as poor reflectors for medical school performance. This format uses short, independent assessments in a timed circuit to obtain aggregate scores in interpersonal skills, professionalism, ethical/moral judgment, and critical thinking to assess candidates. The multiple-mini interview has consistently shown to have a higher predictive validity for future performance than traditional interviews. The multiple-mini interview process has since been adopted by the majority of Canadian medical schools, as well as a number of medical schools in the United States. In 2010, the medical school developed the Computer-based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics, to better assess the applicant's personal characteristics. Several other medical schools have adopted the CASPer test, including New York Medical College, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and the University of Ottawa Faculty of Medicine.

Student life

In the 2016–2017 academic year, the university had an enrolment of 31,625 students: 26,780 undergraduate students, 4,485 graduate students. The student body is largely made up of Canadians, making up 90.27 per cent of the student population. International students represented, respectively, 9.73 per cent of the student population. Full-time students make up about 93.8 per cent of the student body. Among full-time students, the university has a first-time student retention rate of 90.9 per cent.

Student groups

The main student unions on administrative and policy issues are the McMaster Students Union for full-time undergraduates, the McMaster Association of Part-Time Students for part-time undergraduates, and the McMaster Graduate Students Association for postgraduates. In addition, each faculty has its own student representative body. There are more than 300 student organizations and clubs, covering a wide range of interests such as academics, culture, religion, social issues, and recreation. Many of them are centred on the McMaster student activity centre, the McMaster University Student Centre. The Silhouette, the student-run newspaper, is the oldest student service at McMaster University, in publication since 1929. Since 1968, the McMaster Engineering Society has published The Plumbline, the main satire magazine of McMaster University. The campus radio station CFMU-FM (93.3 FM) is Canada's second-oldest campus radio station, and has been broadcasting since 1978. MacInsiders, a once-popular online student-run forum and information network, had been operating from 2007-2019 and had over 18,000 registered members. The McMaster Artificial Intelligence Society, or Mac AI, was founded in December 2017 and has grown to be one of the largest undergraduate AI organizations in Canada — around 5% of the McMaster student population is a general member of the club.

The university hosts a number of honor societies, including the McMaster Honor Society and a chapter of the Golden Key International Honor Society. The university is home to two semi-professional acting companies, McMaster Musical Theatre and the McMaster Thespian Company. The McMaster Engineering Musical is an annual musical production written, directed, and cast by engineers. The production often features unique interpretations of popular songs or musicals. The university and the student unions do not recognize any fraternity or sororities; with existing fraternities and sororities chapters based at McMaster operating as non-accredited off-campus organizations.


Athletics at McMaster is managed by the university's student affairs, under their athletics and recreation department. The university's varsity teams compete in the Ontario University Athletics conference of U Sports (formerly called Canadian Interuniversity Sport). The university's team sports programs include baseball, basketball, football, lacrosse, rugby, soccer, swimming, volleyball, and water polo. The first major sport game played at McMaster was in 1889, when a group of alumni from Toronto Baptist College and Woodstock College played an exhibition game against one another, sparking an early intercity rivalry between McMaster students. In 1897 the university placed all physical activity and sports under the jurisdiction of a central executive committee. The varsity teams have been known as the McMaster Marauders since 1948, through a contest run by the student newspaper, The Silhouette, to name the university's men's basketball team. In 2016–2017 academic year, McMaster had over 1,100 student-athletes in either varsity or club teams.


The McMaster Marauders football team at Ron Joyce Stadium


The Marauders have won 11 national championships and 139 provincial champions since 1961. The men's water polo team has won the Ontario University Athletics championship 25 times, making it the Marauders' most successful team at the provincial level. The men's wrestling team has been the Marauders' most successful team at the national level, winning the Canadian Interuniversity Sport championship four times. McMaster University has graduated 34 Olympic athletes, eight Olympic coaches, two Olympic administrators and two Olympic officials. As is mandatory for all members of U Sports, McMaster University does not provide full-ride athletic scholarships.

The university's sports facilities are in the northeast corner of the main campus. The university has a number of sports facilities, including the David Braley Athletic Centre and the Ron Joyce Stadium. Ron Joyce Stadium includes a full-sized Canadian football field and FIFA-sized soccer pitch. The stadium features permanent seating for 6,000 and temporary seating for an additional 6,000 on the other side of the field when needed. Ron Joyce Stadium is not only used by the university's football and soccer varsity teams it is also used as the training camp for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats of the Canadian Football League and as the home stadium for the Hamilton Nationals of Major League Lacrosse.

Intramural sport leagues and tournaments have a high level of participation at McMaster. Opportunities are offered at multiple skill levels and across a variety of sports to service a range of interest and ability. Sports offered include traditional sports like volleyball, basketball, soccer and cricket, as well as less traditional events like dodgeball, inner tube water polo, and extreme potato sack racing.

Notable alumni and faculty

In the year 2016, McMaster University has over 184,000 alumni residing over 139 countries. Throughout McMaster's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in many fields, accumulating a number of awards including Nobel prizes, Rhodes scholarships, the Gates Cambridge Scholarship, and the Lasker Award. Nobel Prize winners include alumnus Myron Scholes, awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1997 for his work with the Black–Scholes model. Two individuals from McMaster were also award the Nobel Prize in Physics, faculty member Bertram Brockhouse in 1994 for his work in neutron scattering; and alumna Donna Strickland in 2018 for her work on laser physics. Alumnus James Orbinski accepted the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 on behalf of Doctors Without Borders as the organization's president.


The university's Office of Alumni Advancement, and the McMaster Alumni Association is housed at Alumni House


Prominent alumni in the field of science include Douglas L. Coleman, who discovered leptin; Richard Bader, noted for his work on the atoms in molecules theory; Harold E. Johns, who pioneered the use of cobalt-60 in the treatment of cancer, Karl Clark, who pioneered the separation method to extract bitumen from the oil sands; Peter R. Jennings, computer programmer and developer of Microchess; and Simon Sunatori, an engineer and inventor. Notable faculty members include chemist Ronald Gillespie, who helped shape VSEPR theory, as well as David Sackett and Gordon Guyatt, whose research team was credited for establishing the methodologies used in evidence-based medicine. Notable alumni and faculty members in the field of social sciences include Harold Innis, who helped shape communication theory and the staples thesis, and sociologist Henry Giroux, one of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy. Two medical researchers, and members of McMaster had travelled in space; faculty member Dafydd Williams, and alumna Roberta Bondar, the first Canadian woman in space.

Many former students have gained prominence for serving in government. Croatian Prime Minister, Tihomir Orešković was an alumnus of the university. Lincoln Alexander, the former Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, as well as the first visible-minority Lieutenant Governor in Canada was another alumnus of the university. Canadian premiers that have graduated from the university include the former premier of Ontario, Dalton McGuinty, and the former premier of Saskatchewan, Tommy Douglas. Many graduates have also served in the House of Commons of Canada, including, Tony Valeri, the Government House Leader; and Lawrence Pennell, the Solicitor General of Canada. Roy Kellock, a Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada was a graduate from the university. Charles Aubrey Eaton, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and signor of the United Nations Charter on behalf of the United States, was an alumnus of the university.

A number of prominent business leaders have also studied at McMaster. Examples include David Braley, owner of the Toronto Argonauts and BC Lions of the Canadian Football League; Stephen Elop, former president and CEO of Nokia; Cyrus S. Eaton, founder of Republic Steel and chairman of Chesapeake and Ohio Railway; Paul D. House, current executive chairman of Tim Hortons; Lynton Wilson, chairman of Bell Canada, CAE Inc., and Nortel; Michael Lee-Chin, current chairman, CEO of AIC Limited, Kathy Bardswick, president and CEO of The Co-operators, and Rob Burgess, former chairman and CEO of Macromedia.

A number of McMaster alumni had also had successful sports careers, including Syl Apps of the Toronto Maple Leafs; and NHL coach Roger Neilson. The university has had 34 of its graduates compete in the Olympic games, including Olympic medalists Larry Cain; Adam van Koeverden; and Mark Heese. McMaster faculty member Norman Lane was also an Olympic medalist. Several alumni of the university have also become prominent in the entertainment industry, including comedians, actors and directors. Such alumni include Eugene Levy; Martin Short; Jonathan Frid; Ivan Reitman; Dave Thomas; and John Candy.


University of Montreal


University of Montreal

University of Montreal is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the neighbourhoods (School of Engineering; formerly the École Polytechnique de Montréal) and HEC Montréal (of Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges. The institution comprises thirteen faculties, more than sixty departments and two affiliated schools: the Polytechnique MontréalSchool of Business). It offers more than 650 undergraduate programmes and graduate programmes, including 71 doctoral programmes.

The university was founded as a satellite campus of the Université Laval in 1878. It became an independent institution after it was issued a papal charter in 1919 and a provincial charter in 1920. Université de Montréal moved from Montreal's Quartier Latin to its present location at Mount Royal in 1942. It was made a secular institution with the passing of another provincial charter in 1967.

The school is co-educational, and has 34,335 undergraduate and 11,925 post-graduate students (excluding affiliated schools). Alumni and former students reside across Canada and around the world, with notable alumni serving as government officials, academics, and business leaders.


The Université de Montréal was founded in 1878 as a new branch of Université Laval in Quebec City. It was then known as the Université Laval à Montréal. The move initially went against the wishes of Montréal's prelate, who advocated an independent university in his city. Certain parts of the institution's educational facilities, such as those of the Séminaire de Québec and the Faculty of Medicine (founded as the Montreal School of Medicine and Surgery), had already been established in Montréal in 1876 and 1843, respectively.

The Vatican granted the university some administrative autonomy in 1889, thus allowing it to choose its own professors and license its own diplomas. However, it was not until 8 May 1919 that a papal charter from Pope Benedict XV granted full autonomy to the university.  It thus became an independent Catholic university and adopted Université de Montréal as its name.  Université de Montréal was granted its first provincial charter on 14 February 1920.

At the time of its creation, fewer than a hundred students were admitted to the university's three faculties, which at that time were located in Old Montreal. These were the Faculty of Theology (located at the Grand séminaire de Montréal), the Faculty of Law (hosted by the Society of Saint-Sulpice), and the Faculty of Medicine (at the Château Ramezay).

Graduate training based on German-inspired American models of specialized coursework and completion of a research thesis was introduced and adopted. Most of Québec's secondary education establishments employed classic course methods of varying quality. This forced the university to open a preparatory school in 1887 to harmonize the education level of its students. Named the "Faculty of Arts", this school would remain in use until 1972 and was the predecessor of Québec's current CEGEP system.

Two distinct schools eventually became affiliated to the university. The first was the École Polytechnique, a school of engineering, which was founded in 1873 and became affiliated in 1887. The second was the École des Hautes Études Commerciales, or HEC (a business school), which was founded in 1907 and became part of the university in 1915.  In 1907, Université de Montréal opened the first francophone school of architecture in Canada at the École Polytechnique.

Between 1920 and 1925, seven new faculties were added: Philosophy, Literature, Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Dental Surgery, Pharmacy, and Social Sciences. Notably, the Faculty of Social Sciences was founded in 1920 by Édouard Montpetit, the first laic to lead a faculty. He thereafter was named secretary-general, a role he fulfilled until 1950.

From 1876 to 1895, most classes took place in the Grand séminaire de Montréal. From 1895 to 1942, the school was housed in a building at the intersection of Saint-Denis and Sainte-Catherine streets in Montreal's eastern downtown Quartier Latin. Unlike English-language universities in Montréal, such as McGill University, Université de Montréal suffered a lack of funding for two major reasons: the relative poverty of the French Canadian population and the complications ensuing from its being managed remotely, from Quebec City. The downtown campus was hit by three different fires between 1919 and 1921, further complicating the university's already precarious finances and forcing it to spend much of its resources on repairing its own infrastructure.

By 1930, enough funds had been accumulated to start the construction of a new campus on the northwest slope of Mount Royal, adopting new plans designed by Ernest Cormier. However, the financial crisis of the 1930s virtually suspended all ongoing construction.  Many speculated that the university would have to sell off its unfinished building projects to ensure its own survival. Not until 1939 did the provincial government directly intervene by injecting public funds.

The campus's construction subsequently resumed and the mountain campus was officially inaugurated on 3 June 1943. The Cote-des-Neiges site includes property expropriated from a residential development along Decelles Avenue, known as Northmount Heights. The university's former downtown facilities would later serve as Montreal's second francophone university, the Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM).

In 1943, the university assisted the Western Allies by providing laboratory accommodations on its campus. Scientists there worked to develop a nuclear reactor, notably by conducting various heavy water experiments. The research was part of the larger Manhattan Project, which aimed to develop the first atomic bomb. Scientists working on the school's campus eventually produced the first atomic battery to work outside of the United States. One of the participating Québec scientists, Pierre Demers, also discovered a series of radioactive elements issued from Neptunium.

Université de Montréal was issued its second provincial charter in 1950. A new government policy of higher education during the 1960s (following the Quiet Revolution) came in response to popular pressure and the belief that higher education was key to social justice and economic productivity. The policy led to the school's third provincial charter, which was passed in 1967. It defined the Université de Montréal as a public institution, dedicated to higher learning and research, with students and teachers having the right to participate in the school's administration.

In 1965, the appointment of the university's first secular rector, Roger Gaudry, paved the way for modernization. The school established its first adult-education degree program offered by a French Canadian university in 1968. That year the Lionel-Groulx and 3200 Jean-Brillant buildings were inaugurated, the former being named after Quebec nationalist Lionel Groulx. The following year, the Louis Collin parking garage—which won a Governor General's medal for its architecture in 1970—was erected.

An important event that marked the university's history was the École Polytechnique massacre. On 6 December 1989, a gunman armed with a rifle entered the École Polytechnique building, killing 14 people, all of whom were women, before taking his own life.

Since 2002, the university has embarked on its largest construction project since the late 1960s, with the construction of five new buildings planned for advanced research in pharmacology, engineering, aerospace, cancer studies and biotechnology.


The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the Outremont and Côte-des-Neiges boroughs. Its landmark Pavilion Roger-Gaudry (named for former rector Roger Gaudry)—known until 2003 as Pavillon principal—can be seen from around the campus and is known for its imposing tower. It is built mainly in the Art Deco style with some elements of International style and was designed by noted architect Ernest Cormier. On 14 September 1954, a Roll of Honour plaque on the wall at the right of the stairs to the Court of Honour in Roger-Gaudry Pavillon was dedicated to alumni of the school who died in while in the Canadian military during the Second World War. On November 1963, a memorial plaque was dedicated to the memory of those members of the Université de Montréal who served in the Armed Forces during the First and Second World Wars and Korea. The Mont-Royal campus is served by the Côte-des-Neiges, Université-de-Montréal, and Édouard-Montpetit metro stations.

The J.-Armand-Bombardier Incubator is among buildings jointly erected by the Université de Montréal and Polytechnique Montréal. The incubator is part on the main Campus of Université de Montréal and was built in the fall of 2004 with the aim of helping R&D-intensive startup companies by providing complete infrastructures at advantageous conditions. The environment helps promote collaboration between industries and academics while encouraging Quebec entrepreneurship. Since its creation the Incubator has hosted more than fifteen companies, mainly in the biomedical field, in the field of polymer/surface treatment, in optics/photonics (like Photon etc.) and in IT security (like ESET).

The Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM) and the Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine are the two teaching hospital networks of the Université de Montréal's Faculty of Medicine, although the latter is also affiliated with other medical institutions such as the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, Montreal Heart Institute, Hôpital Sacré-Coeur and Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont. A plaque dedicated to the personnel of the "Hôpital Général Canadien No. 6 (Université Laval de Montréal)" from 1916 to 1920 was donated by Mr. Louis de Gonzague Beaubien in 1939.


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View of Université de Montréal's main campus, taken in June 2017. The majority of the university's facilities are located on this campus.


Map of the university's Mount Royal campus


Off-campus facilities

Apart from its main Mont-Royal campus, the university also maintains five regional facilities in Terrebonne, Laval, Longueuil, Saint-Hyacinthe and Mauricie. The campus in Laval, just north of Montréal, was opened in 2006. It is Laval's first university campus and is located in the area near the Montmorency metro station and opposite to Collège Montmorency. In October 2009, the university announced an expansion of its Laval satellite campus with the commissioning of the six-storey Cité du Savoir complex. The Mauricie campus in the city of Trois-Rivières is known for its association with the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) and as a satellite campus for the university's faculty of medicine. To solve the problem of lack of space on its main campus, the university is also planning to open a new campus in Outremont, known as the MIL campus.

Campus MIL

The University of Montreal's master plan includes the construction of new institutional spaces in the borough of Outremont, Montreal. The campus accessible by two metro stations (Outremont and Acadie), will include teaching and research rooms. The premises are built in accordance with LEED eco-certification. The MIL campus (which derives its name from "Milieu", which means middle in French) has been under construction since 2016. At the centre of the campus lies the Science Complex, which opened in 2019.

The opening of the MIL Campus generated controversy and attracted criticism from various community organizations in Parc-Extension, one of the poorest neighborhoods in Montreal. In the fall of 2019, the opening of the campus was disrupted by the Parc-Extension Action Committee (CAPE) to denounce the increasing number of tenants who are evicted from their apartments to make more units available for students in the neighborhood. More recently, these organizations claimed that the arrival of the campus has encouraged a significant increase in evictions and rental prices in Parc-Extension. Researchers from three Montreal universities – McGill University, Concordia University and the University of Quebec in Montreal – implemented the Parc-Extension anti-eviction mapping project in 2019, in collaboration with CAPE. A report documenting the gentrification of Parc-Extension was published in June 2020 by the Parc-Extension anti-eviction mapping project and the CAPE. The authors conclude that the average rent for two-bedroom apartment ads between February and May 2020 was almost twice the estimates made by the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation in October 2019. Organizations have also criticized the Université de Montréal for excluding the construction of student residences from the master plan of the new campus.


The Université de Montréal is a publicly funded research university and a member of the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Undergraduate students make up the majority of the university community, accounting for 74 per cent of the university student body, whereas graduate students account for 24 per cent of the student body. The university presently has 66,768 students (including students from affiliated institutions HEC Montréal and Polytechnique Montréal). More than 9,500 university students are international students, while another 8,000 are considered permanent residents of Canada. From the 1 June 2010 to the 31 May 2011, the university conferred 7,012 bachelor's degrees, 461 doctoral degrees, and 3,893 master's degrees.

Depending on a student's citizenship, they may be eligible for financial assistance from the Student Financial Assistance program, administered by the provincial Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports, and/or the Canada Student Loans and Grants through the federal and provincial governments. The university's Office of Financial Aid acts as intermediaries between the students and the Quebec government for all matters relating to financial assistance programs. The financial aid provided may come in the form of loans, grants, bursaries, scholarships fellowships and work programs.


Université de Montréal has consistently been ranked in a number of university rankings. In the 2020 Academic Ranking of World Universities, the university ranked 151–200 in the world and 6–9 in Canada. The 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed the university 85th in the world, and fifth in Canada. The 2021 QS World University Rankings ranked the university 118th in the world and fourth in Canada. In U.S. News & World Report 2020 global university rankings, the university placed 139th, tied for fifth in Canada with the University of Alberta. In Maclean's 2020 Canadian university rankings, the university was ranked 10th in both their Medical-Doctoral university category, and in their reputation ranking for Canadian universities. The university was ranked in spite of having opted out from participation in Maclean's graduate survey since 2006.

The university is also particularly well ranked in computer science: The 2020 Times Higher Education World University Rankings placed the university 31st in the world, and 2nd in Canada.

Université de Montréal also placed in a number of rankings that evaluated the employment prospects of graduates. In QS's 2019 graduate employability ranking, the university ranked 151–160 in the world, and ninth in Canada. In the Times Higher Education's 2018 global employability ranking, the university placed 37th in the world, and third in Canada.


Université de Montréal is a member of the U15, a group that represents 15 Canadian research universities. The university includes 465 research units and departments. In 2018, Research Infosource ranked the university third in their list of top 50 research universities; with a sponsored research income (external sources of funding) of $536.238 million in 2017. In the same year, the university's faculty averaged a sponsored research income of $271,000, while its graduates averaged a sponsored research income of $33,900.

Université de Montréal research performance has been noted in several bibliometric university rankings, which uses citation analysis to evaluate the impact a university has on academic publications. In 2019, the Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities ranked the university 104th in the world, and fifth in Canada. The University Ranking by Academic Performance 2018–19 rankings placed the university 99th in the world, and fifth in Canada.

Student life

The school's two main student unions are the Fédération des associations étudiantes du campus de l'Université de Montréal (FAÉCUM), which represents all full-time undergraduate and graduate students, and the Association Étudiante de la Maîtrise et du Doctorat de HEC Montréal (AEMD), which defends the interests of those enrolled in HEC Montréal. FAÉCUM traces its lineage back to 1989, when the Fédération étudiante universitaire du Québec (FEUQ) was founded, and is currently the largest student organization in Québec. Accredited organizations and clubs on campus cover a wide range of interests ranging from academics to cultural, religion and social issues. FAÉCUM is currently associated with 82 student organizations and clubs. Four fraternities and sororities are recognized by the university's student union, Sigma Thêta Pi, Nu Delta Mu, Zeta Lambda Zeta, Eta Psi Delta.

The university's student population operates a number of news media outlets. The Quartier Libre is the school's main student newspaper. CISM-FM is an independently owned radio station of the students of the Université de Montréal and operated by the student union. The radio station dates back to 1970; it received a permit from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) on 10 July 1990 to transmit on an FM band. On 14 March 1991, CISM's broadcasting antenna was boosted to 10 000 watts. With a broadcasting radius of 70 km, CISM is now the world's largest French-language university radio station. The CFTU-DT television station also receives technical and administrative support from the student body.

Université de Montréal's sports teams are known as the Carabins. The Carabins participate in the U Sports' Réseau du sport étudiant du Québec (RSEQ) conference for most varsity sports. Varsity teams include rugby, badminton, Canadian football, cheerleading, golf, hockey, swimming, alpine skiing, soccer, tennis, track and field, cross-country, and volleyball. The athletics program at the university dates back to 1922. The university's athletic facilities is open to both its varsity teams and students. The largest sports facility is the Centre d'éducation physique et des sports de l'Université de Montréal (CEPSUM), which is also home to all of the Carabin's varsity teams. The CEPSUM's building was built in 1976 in preparation for the 1976 Summer Olympics held in Montréal. The outdoor stadium of the CEPSUM, which hosts the university's football team, can seat around 5,100 people.

Notable people

The university has an extensive alumni network, with more than 300,000 members. Throughout the university's history, faculty, alumni, and former students have played prominent roles in a number of fields. Several prominent business leaders have graduated from the university. Graduates include Philippe de Gaspé Beaubien, founder and CEO of Telemedia, Louis R. Chênevert, chairman and CEO of the United Technologies Corporation, and Pierre Karl Péladeau, former president and CEO of Quebecor.

A number of students have also gained prominence for their research and work in a number of scientific fields. Roger Guillemin, a graduate of the university, would later be awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work with neurohormones. Alumnus Ishfaq Ahmad would also gain prominence for his work with Pakistan's nuclear weapon's program. Jocelyn Faubert, known for his work in the fields of visual perception, is currently a faculty member of the university. Gilles Brassard, best known for his fundamental work in quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation, quantum entanglement distillation, quantum pseudo-telepathy, and the classical simulation of quantum entanglement. Ian Goodfellow is a thought leader in the field of artificial intelligence.

Many former students have gained local and national prominence for serving in government, including Former Supreme Court of Canada Judge and UN Human Rights Commissioner Louise Arbour. Michaëlle Jean served as Governor General of Canada and as Secretary-General of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Ahmed Benbitour served as the Prime Minister of Algeria, and Pierre Trudeau served as the Prime Minister of Canada. Eleven Premiers of Quebec have also graduated from Université de Montréal, including Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Robert Bourassa, Maurice Duplessis, Lomer Gouin, Daniel Johnson, Jr., Daniel Johnson Sr., Pierre-Marc Johnson, Bernard Landry, Jacques Parizeau, Paul Sauvé and Philippe Couillard.

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